Ситуации как предмет социологического изучения // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии
Situatedness of action and cognition makes some social theorists address to situation as a source of explanation of human behavior. However, situations themselves remain unexplained. For sociology, it is necessary to explain why and which situations appear in life and influence behavior. To make situational analysis sociologically relevant, we pay attention to task-solving situations. Here we define situations as opposing to actions (task solving) and not to actors. Task-solving is a kind of discrete and specific activity that can be referred to social functions at the societal level. A sociological study of task-solving situations implies task localization and decomposition of activities, analysis of situation structure, and description of situations and their structural features distribution. We illustrate this situational approach with an example in the sociology of science.