Отчуждение от учебы как предиктор выгорания у студентов ВУЗов: роль характеристик образовательной среды
The paper presents two studies aimed at development and validation of a scale of alienation in educational context. The first study using samples of university students (N = 395) and high school students (N = 194) involves structural validation of Subjective Alienation Questionnaire for Students using confirmatory factor analysis. The scales of the questionnaire have shown acceptable internal consistency (α = 0,70−0,92) and predictable associations with measures of subjective and psychological well-being, locus of control, life meaning, generalized self-efficacy, and hardiness. The second study using a sample of university students (N = 152) focused on the associations of alienation, burnout, and academic motivation with learning environment characteristics, well-being, and self-reported academic achievement. According to the resulting model, learning motivation and alienation reflect characteristics of relation of the student to the object of learning, whereas burnout reflects the resulting characteristics of learning process. Burnout was predicted by excessive difficulty of learning tasks, high workload, and alienation. Alienation was predicted by low teacher support, low clarity of learning requirements, and lack of choice in studies. Alienation and burnout mediated the associations of these learning environment characteristics with self-reported academic success and subjective well-being of students.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the relation between the concepts of loss of meaning (V. Frankl) and alienation (K. Marx, E. Fromm) that are related to similar phenomena. A theory of alienation as an existential neurosis (S. Maddi) is reviewed and seen as a link between these two traditions. Based on the multidimensional view of the ontology of meaning as a psychological and a sociocultural unit, the authors present a view of experiences of meaningfulness and meaning loss as emergent phenomena of the overall system of relationships with the world that are actively pursued by an individual (this view is based on theories of A.N. Leontiev, S. Maddi, J. Nakamura, M. Csikszentmihalyi). In this view, alienation is seen as a category that describes ontological basis of meaninglessness, which is a subjective phenomenon.
In the article one of the major aspects of ontology of Paul Tillich (1886- 1965), an outstanding German-American philosopher and theologian, the founder of current neo-liberal theology, philosopher of culture, - the problem of existence as an alienation is analyzed. The concept of alienation, which is dominant in the world, is described by the majority of trends of modern philosophy and Christian anthropology to both of which Tillich belonged. The majority of religious thinkers of XX century (not only Christian thinkers) have apprehended philosophical concept of alienation as a correlate of theological concepts of God-abandonness, creatureness and sinfulness.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics – the ontological evidence for God's existence or ontological argument. The idea of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyses argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology, which is adequate for knowledge of the systems including free activity of the person. These are the problems constantly facing modern social sciences; therefore, despite the historical and philosophical direction of the book, the problems that are relevant to modern social and human sciences are under continued discussion. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
The dynamics of views on human development is considered from the points of primitive human being development, infant and schoolchild development. The originality of views on development is reviewed as process of signification. It is emphasized that infant development concerns the internal mechanisms of mental activity formation and the acquisition of these mechanisms. The ability developmental process is addressed to intellectual operations acquisition that the schoolchildren acquire through the learning activity. The experimental data confirming the effectiveness of considered approach to mental development are given.
The project addresses anomie and alienation theories as a means of studying the state of contemporary societies. The two theories appeared and developed separately, but with the institutionalization of psychological anomie (anomia) as well as with the extension of the notion of alienation the two theories became not only close to each other but also mixed with each other. Still, there hasn’t been enough theoretical contribution to the separation of the two concepts (Shoham 1982, Olsen 1965), and none on the separation within the alienation theory and the psychological anomie, which is claimed to be crucial for both theoretical and empirical works. The project offers a model of conceptualization of the concepts and applies it using ESS 2010.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics - the ontological argument better known as the ontological argument of evidence for God's existence. The ontological argument is a logical nonsense for classical the subject - object relation; it becomes the natural phenomenon in the reflexive systems including cognitive activity of the subject as an element of the functioning and existence. The concept of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyze argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology in the course of the Western philosophy development. From the standpoint of the received results, the methodological problems of economic science related to the alienation and also the reflexive paradoxes encountered within sociology of knowledge are analyzed in the last part of the book. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
В книге в популярной форме рассмотрена эволюция одного из наиболее и дискуссионных созданий западноевропейской метафизики – онтологического доказательства бытия Бога или онтологического аргумента. Введение представления о классической и неклассической формах аргумента позволило автору проанализировать его развитие как процесс становления рефлексивной методологии, адекватной для познания систем, включающих в себя свободную деятельность человека. С подобными задачами постоянно сталкиваются современные социальные науки, поэтому, несмотря на историко-философскую направленность книги, в ней постоянно обсуждаются проблемы, актуальные для современных наук об обществе и человеке. В первую очередь, книга адресована специалистам в области истории философии и методологии социального познания, философии и социологии религии, а также всем, кто интересуется фундаментальными вопросами классической метафизики.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.