ДОРОЖНО-ТРАНСПОРТНЫЙ ТРАВМАТИЗМ В РОССИИ И ЕГО ФАКТОРЫ
Any road traffic system is very complicated and can be dangerous to health. Elements of this system include motorized transport vehicles, roads, road users as well as physical, social and economic environment. Countries with high automobilization have long ceased to consider traffic accidents as a pure “chance”; furthermore, efforts aimed at preventing and mitigating negative consequences of traffic accidents are thoroughly designed and structured.
In 1972, William Haddon published his study with incorporated approaches that used to be individually applied to trauma epidemiology and transport engineering. Haddon suggested a model to analyze traffic situations that were dangerous to health. Haddon’s approach allowed to achieve a notable progress in understanding factors related to driver’s behavior, vehicle characteristics and road infrastructure conditions affecting emergence of traffic accidents and severity of consequences for participants. Haddon’s approach turned out to be a useful analytical instrument and became widely used in healthcare.
Advanced mathematical and static methods of processing of the results of experimental studies, comparison of the obtained data with the works of authors investigating traffic safety, analysis, reconstruction and investigation of road traffic accidents, as well as expert analysis helped to identify the most relevant parameters of the vehicle condition and the road environment necessary for automobile technical expert evaluation (e.g. the friction coefficient, vehicle braking performance under different loads on all categories of roads with different types of road surface, roughness, wheel tracking, hydraulic roughness) and to obtain their actual values that are important for expert studies; and that was proved by experiments. The developed method of reconstruction and investigation of accidents implies calculation of state parameters of the vehicle and the road environment on the basis of the type of the investigated accident and geometric characteristics of the accident place.
The paper examines correlation in planning and organizing logistics of supplying goods and the issue of safety at urban roads; a model to determine the time of goods delivery is proposed on the basis of logistic concept “just-in-time” that takes into account the requirements of road safety on the one hand, and the customer-oriented approach of delivery, applied technologies and management solutions, on the other. The model is based on an integrated approach to the management of logistics processes; it can serve as a basis for decision making among departments in transport enterprises, logistics departments at industrial and trade enterprises, and corporate consumers. The paper also proposes to add the second level parameters to the system of logistics key performance indicators (KPI); these parameters would allow evaluating the target performance in goods transportation, as well as actual performance of logistics operations, including transportation in terms of road safety.
The article presents an analysis of the demographic losses from the main causes of death in Russia, in the Republic of Bashkortostan and in OECD countries. Based on analysis of the numbers of deaths and potential years of life lost (PYLL), there was shown the position of external factors in the structure of total mortality in these regions. Although the number of deaths from external causes in both sexes before age 70 was on the 2nd place in 1992-2012 and in all ages one became on the 3rd place since 2006, in terms of PYLL premature loss from these causes had become the biggest threat to public health at least since 1990. There were specified peculiarities of calculation of the PYLL according to the methodology of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The basic conditions of the reduction of mortality from external causes are considered: the formation of vital behaviors among the population, creating a safe environment, an increase in expenditure on health care. Because almost all of the external causes of death are preventable, preventive measures play a major role in the limiting of risk factors, so Russian health system approach should be aimed not only on treatment but first of all on prevention. In addition, there were shown the analytical capabilities of the Haddon Matrix in the classification of the main factors of risk of death from external causes on the example of the suicide.
The collective monograph deals with the fundamentals and principles of venture financing, the history of its emergence, distinctive features from other types of investment. The book proves the relevance of the developing logistics infrastructure and the formating regional transport and logistics system based on the cluster approach in the Omsk region. The monograph deals with the problem of road safety from the institutional approach. Collective monograph can be recommended to senior managers, business professionals, university professors, graduate students, students of senior courses in economic specialties.
Although deaths from external causes are often described with the words "random" or "accidents", they are not. There are certain risk factors that directly or indirectly lead to, for example, alcohol poisoning, car accidents, murder and other external causes of death. The ability of developed countries to limit the negative impact of various risk factors of external causes of death makes possible to attribute them to a group of mostly preventable deaths. Analysis of the Russian mortality from external causes shows that it leads to significant demographic losses in years of life, and excess deaths. Therefore, the primary focus should be on the increasing of life expectancy by reducing traumatic mortality, especially in working ages. Based on the reports of WHO, UNICEF, World Bank, UNDP and other international organizations the classification of risk factors of death from external causes was made by using the Haddon matrix.
The problem of motor vehicle injuries in Russia nowadays is a common topic of discussion. Motor vehicle accidents as a cause of death are among the most significant causes of premature mortality in Russia. Motor vehicle accidents, the cause of 26,977 deaths in 2013, are an important public health problem, the leading cause of death among young working-age people. In addition to these deaths, annually about 250 thousand people are seriously injured and need hospital treatment. This puts a serious burden on the healthcare system, which must provide medical care for injuries while at the same time solving other priority problems. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the statistical sources of information about road traffic accidents in Russia. The author analyzes Russian and international approaches to the organization of statistics about road traffic accidents. An evaluation is presented of the undercounting of road traffic accidents with injured people and the underestimation of its impact in Russia. Recommendations are made on how to record and compare information from different sources about road traffic accidents.
Abstract. Over more than ten years, Russia has been at the top of the list of the OECD countries by traffic-related death rate per 1000 residents. The death rate in Russia is five- to six-fold greater than in most of the developed countries, given that the number of cars per 1000 residents is much lower. Despite the increased attention and financing, the problem of road traffic injuries remains unresolved. The implementation of the 2006- 2012 Road Safety Federal Target program did not bring about the expected results. Russia`s lagging behind the leading countries in traffic injury prevention is due to the ineffective system of law control and implementation. The problem of corruption in the road safety management is of special attention. According to a number of experts, today the political efforts to tackle the road safety problem is only aggravate the situation and contribute to the increase in corruption cases which shows the ineffectiveness of the policies. Effective road traffic safety policy requires a good knowledge of the situation. With the lack of scientific studies and regular publications devoted to this problem, there is nothing left but taking impulsive and random decisions.
The Proceedings of reports presented at the 12th International Conference on Road Organization and Safety in Big Cities (St. Petersburg, 28-30 September 2016) covers a wide range of theoretical and practical issues related to road deaths prevention (up to “zero” level) – conceptual, legal, organizational, technological, informational, etc. Following the goal it builds up the knowledge base on the space (complete set) of factors affecting the level of road safety, as well as studies the preventive measures for potential causes of road crash fatalities. The research area includes all levels of the state system hierarchy related to road safety: from the first (the road) level, revealing the final causes of road crashes such as speeding, driving in the opposite direction, etc., to the upper government management levels that can bear the root causes of road crash fatalities and casualties. Subjects of research include general and regional road safety systems, technologies (techniques, methods, mechanisms) for their efficient organization and management, as well as the organization of various subsystems, functionally connected by the system-wide goal. The articles in these Proceedings focus on various subjects, such as the quality of legislative and regulatory issues ensuring system wide activities on road deaths prevention and their rigorous practical implementation; issues of development of transport infrastructure, including bicycles; issues of intellectualization of systems and processes, formalization (including mathematical) of modeling and design tasks of various objects in the system, their effectiveness assessment and sustaining the latter in the operational mode; issues of justification and practical application of the mechanisms of formation of the main functional properties of the systems that make up the quality and create possibilities for on-line monitoring of the functioning processes and prediction of their condition; issues of GIS modeling of road networks, modeling of transport accidents, prevention of drinking and driving, etc. The Conference holders believe that these materials will help find solutions and promote a transfer of the current road safety practices in Russia to a rigorous system approach, to methods of continuous (in CALS-technologies terms) modeling (improvement) of the road crash deaths prevention systems – the only generally recognized scientific tool for efficient complex systems study, to the development of a sustainable knowledge base and targeted experts systems – a tool to manage competence, responsibility and loyal motivation of personnel, and ultimately - to saving lives on the roads.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.