Проблемы применимого права в спорах из потребительских договоров: практика судов США
The paper presents an analysis of American case law regarding disputes from consumer contracts, in which there were interstate conflicts. It is investigated what impact the applicable law provides for the court's decision to note a class action. The author also explored the ways to "bypass" the applicable law clause in consumer contracts. In order to protect the "weaker party" courts use the doctrine of public policy, the theory of interest analysis, the principle of closest connection.
The article tackles the role of judicial practice in developing Russian law, pro and con of judicial precedent. According to the author,it is important that all higher courts take into consideration resembling principles of influence of their legal position on social relations, i. e. support to the concept of precedent law.
The key point of this article is comparative analysis of the Russian and USA national laws, the provision dealing with recovery statutory damages. The two basic aims of this form of liability are:
1) to give the courts specific unambiguous directions concerning monetary awards, thus avoiding the confusion and uncertainty and, at the same time,
2) to provide the courts with reasonable latitude to adjust recovery to the circumstances of the case, thus avoiding some of the artificial or overly technical difficulties.
The article also includes the review “fair use” as a special principle of liability.
Nowadays, the European Union has faced significant difficulties associated with the creation of a uniform mechanism for determining the personal law (Statute) of legal entities, i.e. single collision bindings to the personal statutes of companies. Attempts to achieve convergence and harmonization of national legislations in this matter have not yet been crowned with success. The purpose of this study is to analyze the provisions applied in the countries of the European Union, the criteria for determining the personal law of legal persons, as well as judicial practice aimed at the gradual approximation, harmonization and leveling of contradictions in various legal systems. In the article, using a comparative method of research, a detailed analysis of the norms of international treaties and the case law of the Court of the European Union regulating the recognition of legal personality of legal persons was carried out. The following conclusions are drawn as a result of the development of the case law of the European Union: the movement of both the statutory and actual location of the company is allowed under the law of the European Union;the establishment of a company in a state with a more liberal corporate regime is not an abuse of the institution's freedom, even if it serves to circumvent the norms of another member state in which all the company's activities will be carried out; is also not an abuse of the performance of activities not at the place of registration but at the location of the branch of the company; the receiving state is obliged to recognize that a foreign company conducts its activities on its territory, to recognize its legal personality, the settlement theory in this case does not work; the host State can not prohibit a transnational merger and its registration in its registry, if such registration is allowed when merging national companies; the company may move its statutory or actual location to another state without loss of legal personality under the law of the state of creation; the question of the possibility of maintaining the legal capacity and the law applicable to the company (state of creation) when moving to a foreign state is decided by the state of creation itself, which in this case has the right to prohibit or restrict such movement; if the company intends to change the applicable law and take the legal form of the company provided in the receiving state, the state of establishment can not prohibit the migration of the company and oblige it to be liquidated, provided that such a migration is allowed by the receiving state.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/