Student Employment: The Interdependence of Work and Learning Experience
Combining job and studies is quite often the case both in Russia and in Europe. But today researchers all over the world seek to explain the increase in the number of working students and in hours they spend working. In Russia, the situation is exacerbated by a decreasing value of formal education for employers, which can make a working experience a basic prerequisite to participate in the labor market entry competition.
Higher Education has become a central institution of society, building individual knowledge, skills, agency, and relational social networks at unprecedented depth and scale. Within a generation there has been an extraordinary global expansion of Higher Education, in every region in all but the poorest countries, outstripping economic growth and deriving primarily from familial aspirations for betterment. By focusing on the systems and countries that have already achieved near universal participation, High Participation Systems of Higher Education explores this remarkable transformation. The world enrolment ratio, now rising by 10 per cent every decade, is approaching 40 per cent, mostly in degree-granting institutions, including three quarters of young people in North America and Europe. Higher Education systems in the one in three countries that enrol more than 50 per cent are here classified as 'high participation systems'. Part I of the book measures, maps, and explains the growth of participation, and the implications for society and Higher Education itself. Drawing on a wide range of literature and data, the chapters theorize the changes in governance, institutional diversity, and stratification in Higher Education systems, and the subsequent effects in educational and social equity. The theoretical propositions regarding high-participation Higher Education developed in these chapters are then tested in the country case studies in Part II, presenting a comprehensive enquiry into the nature of the emerging 'high participation society'.
The chapter focuses on the ultimate question of the project: what will change in a society when a majority of the age group will have higher education. Seeking for approaches to understand the future role of higher education in the HPS societies the chapter reviews theories and concepts developed in two disciplinary traditions: social sciences (structural functionalism, neoinstitutionalism, conflict theories, cultural reproduction theories as well as some higher education specific approaches) and educational philosophy (Bildung theories, growth theory among others). Those two strands of scholarship respectively highlight two key dimensions in the relationship between higher education and society: (a) the social and occupational structure and (b) socialization as human/personal development, self-formation. The chapter addresses the potential changes in HPS societies along those lines. It concludes that a Bildung idea of the duality of human nature as both being determined by the world and being self-determining largely corresponds two above disciplinary approaches and their traditional focus and opens up an intellectual space for further cross-disciplinary, multi-dimensional research on the role of higher education for individuals and society.
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This is the first handbook to cover the sociological approaches to higher education. It is timely because of global expansions of mass higher educational systems, especially as these systems come under scrutiny by a variety of stakeholders. Questions are being raised about the value of traditional pedagogies along with calls for efficiency, accountability and cost-reduction, but above all job training.
Within this neoliberal context, each chapter examines different sociological aspects of, and debates about, educational institutions as status-conferring organizations, with myriad positional characteristics, experiences, and outcomes. Many current debates concern the legitimacy of the statuses conferred, including the continuing debate regarding the role of universities in legitimating social class reproduction as well as more recent concerns about standards in mass systems.
This handbook puts these issues and debates in focus in ways that will be of interest to a variety of stakeholders, within academia as well as in policy circles. (from Routledge website)
The entry provides an overview of the development of the multidiscilinary field of higher education research in Russia. In Soviet period, research on higher education has been developing along with the division of research in the country – between the Academy of Sciences, higher education institutions, and sectoral research under the corresponding ministries. However, current lack of an institutional basis for higher education research reflects the marginal role that the field plays in Russia.
The chapter provides an analysis of the Russian system of higher education in a comparative perspective, including massification and social inequality issues.
The article starts with reviewing of major sociological approaches to higher education (education as accumulation of professional capital, education as class distinction, education as age moratorium, etc.). We then derive hypotheses from each of the theories on how the process of choosing between specialties is organized. Each of the models of student choice is then tested against objective data on application to different specialties of a large university using multiple regression and social network analysis. It seems that the model of opportunistic professionalism fits the data best: the prospective students choose their preferred specialty early, probably on the basis of projected financial returns, and prepare for them purposefully for a long period of time. When it proves unavailable, however, they easily shift to less attractive options. Paid education programs serve as inferior goods to the public-funded ones.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.