Исследования профессиональных групп в России и Франции
The author describes the principal stages in the development of research in profession prestige since the emergence of the field in 1925 and up to the recent publications of 2006. The key phenomenon uncovered in the course of the research is that the relative rating of prestigious professions remains almost independent of research technique, surveyed group, time or place. More precise recent studies showed that profession prestige does exhibit small dynamics, but nevertheless remains fairly stable. However, studies of this type are practically non-existent in Russia. The author offers a very general picture of the concept of profession prestige as it emerged in Western sociology after hundreds of studies. The conclusion of the article is that research on profession prestige is highly desirable in Russia. It is of use both for practical purposes (for education and professional orientation, or as an objective stratification parameter, for all social sciences) and as an independent topic of study.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.