Taking care of themselves: how long-term injection drug users avoid HIV and Hepatitis C
Though prevalence of HIV and especially Hepatitis C is high among injection drug users (IDUs) in New York, about a third of those who have injected for 8 – 15 years have avoided infection by either virus despite their long-term drug use. Based on life history interviews with 35 long-term IDUs in New York, this paper seeks to show how successful integration and performance of various drug using and non-drug using roles may have contributed to some of these IDUs’ staying uninfected with either virus. We argue that analysis of non-risk related aspects of the lives of the risk-takers (IDUs) is very important in understanding their risk-taking behavior and its outcomes (infection statuses). Drawing on work-related, social, and institutional resources, our double-negative informants underwent both periods of stability and turmoil without getting infected.
This is a qualitative study of candidates’ motivation to take BEC exams and their expectations towards the exam results, which was conducted at the Cambridge Exam Preparation Center in a Russian university. The research dataset comprised 33 participants who took part in faceto- face in-depth semi-structured interviews. Overall, candidates show a positive attitude to BEC at different exam levels. The main reasons for preparing for and taking the exams are extrinsic and defined by the institutional environment. The respondents opt for BEC exams as they intend to receive an international education (master’s level) and/or build a successful career in international organizations. The study also revealed a connection between candidates’ expectations toward exam results and their age and level of language proficiency.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.