In this study we compare ethical values of Russian law students and professional lawyers. We focus on the problem of choosing between personal benefits and professional responsibility, as well as on the transformations of ethical values between university and the bar. In two studies using a single methodology we have surveyed 282 law student in three Russian universities and 372 lawyer from 9 regions of Russia. At the moment this is the only study in Russia, which allows us to compare the views of law students and professional lawyers, and find out at what point the idea about dominance of personal benefit over professional responsibility established. We conclude that the reasons for the differences in professional ethics are rooted in the system of legal education.
The paper considers the factors explaining violent pressure of law enforcement agencies on businessmen in Russia in recent years. This phenomenon has been analyzed from the viewpoint of “destructive entrepreneurship” concept (Baumol, 1990) and “limited access order” framework (North et al, 2009). The paper stresses the key role of economic and political organizations in defending entrepreneurs’ interests. It proposes a number of policy recommendations on incentive system design for law enforcement agencies and development of their public communications with business and civil society organizations.
The paper focuses on the analysis of professional/occupational groups that are depended more than others on the support of the state for their prosperity. We consider approaches to the definition of the methods of this support, principles and models of interaction of the state and professional/occupational groups in the processes of professionalization. A significant influence of historical and social context requires not only sociological but also institutional approach for the analysis as well as appropriate institutional concepts. Institutional isomorphism approach and an institutional matrices theory are applied in the paper to investigate interaction between the state and professional groups, with conditions and prospects of their interconnections. Empirical data about professional associations in Russian engineering sphere is presented.