Проблемы бедности и доступа к образованию. Оценка ситуации в России и международный опыт
At the institutional determinants of inequality of opportunity in quality higher education. The author of the main directions of the necessary institutional reforms to improve the accessibility of higher education in Russia.
In this paper authors evaluate the effectiveness of different segments and levels of Russian educational system in comparison to the educational systems of the most economically developed countries. The study of adult literacy targeted to reveal stability (or instability) of educational outcomes in long perspective in different groups, including low- and high-educated people, with modest and significant resources. Empirical basis for this research are the results of international comparative studies - the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, all rounds with the participation of Russia), and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The central question of the article is whether exist specifics of Russian educational system on the macro-level in comparison to developed countries. Moreover, if such specifics can be found, what are advantages and disadvantages of the Russian education? Does educational outcomes change with time? And what are the tendencies of these changes?
In the study at hand, we focus on how social contexts promote academic performance disparities between Russian high schools. In particular, we investigate how a school's average USE (Unified State Examination) scores in Russian and mathematics relate to the social composition of its student body, material and human resources, and local deprivation. We develop a two-level hierarchical regression model to analyze data from school profiles collected in two Russian regions (Yaroslavskaya Oblast’ and Moskovskaya Oblast’) during the 2011-12 academic year. Both social characteristics of the student body as well as the schools' material and human resources were associated with academic performance. However, after controlling for the characteristics of pupils and schools, our study did not discover any significant independent effects of the local context. We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to developing contextualized measures of academic performance in Russia, and show how such measures could be used to identify cases of “resilient” and “failing” schools for the purposes of more accurate evaluations. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations of the current research and suggest several possibilities for empirical development.
Along with the fast growing economy, the term «BRICs» was coined to represent the newly emerging countries — Brazil, Russia, India and China. The enhanced economy in these countries has largely improved peoples life; at the same time, it has also strongly influenced the transformation of social structure, norms and values. However, as the worlds attention centers on their economic development at the micro level, the social changes at the micro level have often been neglected, and a specific comparative study of these four countries is even more rare. This handbooks contributing authors are leading sociologists in the four countries. They fill the gap in existing literature and examine specifically the changes in each society from the perspective of social stratification, with topics covering the main social classes, the inequality of education and income, and the different styles of consumption as well as the class consciousness and values. Under every topic, it gathers articles from authors of each country. Such a comparative study could not only help us achieve a better understanding of the economic growth and social development in these countries, but also lead us to unveil the mystery of how these emerging powers with dramatic differences in history, geography, culture, language, religion and politics could share a common will and take joint action. In general, the handbook takes a unique perspective to show readers that it is the profound social structural changes in these countries that determine their future, and to a large extent, will shape the socio-economic landscape of the future world.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.