Виртуальное сообщество как социальное поле: неравенство и коммуникативный капитал
Structures of social inequality and new forms of power inevitably arise inside the social space within the modern Internet despite the idea that Internet is a means of free communication based on the equality of users. The influence of traditional social inequality forms is absorbed and reduced within computer-mediated communication, so we suggest a hypothesis about emergence of radically new social resource. The paper presents the approach to study a virtual community as a social field (in terms of Bourdieu theory). The aim of this study is to measure and evaluate the contribution of different types of capital to unequal distribution of power within community. The author has developed the analytical matrix of social integration types provided by different web technologies, formulated the concept of communicative capital, operationalized different types of capital in cyberspace. Finally, the author presents the results of his empirical research showing and interpreting the distribution of different types of capital between two groups of users - moderators and ordinary users.
Current empirical sociology features a limited set of indicators for associating individuals with certain social groups (classes or strata). European sociologists rely heavily on such an informative descriptor as occupation, which has become institutionalized and thus produces certain requirements of human, social and cultural resources for individuals to perform the underlying functions. However, this indicator manifests at least two substantial restrictions: first, it is natural that certain types of economic activity are historically less stable than the social classes with which they are associated; and second, Russian history demonstrates that in a developed society the system of occupations is consistent with its institutional set-up and system of values, which are transferred from generation to generation. In Russia specific occupations are associated with a certain character of labour yet not with particular status characteristics that should result from the corporate nature of professional associations. In fact, in that society there exists a unique form of social stratification, in which a hierarchy of social estates dominates elements of true class differentiation.
The emergence on the Russian market of new forms of sales and services, like online-shopping, has formed a new sphere of communication - client/customer service to the actual and potential clients/customers by email. This area is actively developing in Russia for the last 10 years. On the basis of the analysis of the examples of e-mails, sent to the real people by the customer services of 115 different companies, the author formulates the main trends of the use of forms of address in this sphere.
The paper describes the varieties of acronyms and other abbreviations used in the speech of Internet forums. The author investigates their features and functions and reveals the relationship the relationship between the active usage of different kinds of abbreviations and their functions in the Internet speech.
From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious ‘eduLIFE Lifelong Learning Series’ provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling, examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment.
Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality brings together a number of cross-national and country studies conducted by well-known experts in the field. In contrast to existing empirical research, this book reconstructs individuals’ educational careers step-by-step, providing a longitudinal perspective essential for an appropriate understanding of the dynamics of inequalities in secondary education. The international viewpoint allows for an illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.
This book will be of great interest to policymakers, researchers and professional experts in the field, including sociologists, pedagogues, international political scientists and economists, and also serves as a major text for postgraduate and postdoctoral courses.
Internаtional Sociological Association, Working Group on Local and Global Relations (WG 01)
Authors present the results of cyberethographic research of touristic community “Forum Vinskogo”. Basing on previous experience of researchers, authors are working on detailed categorical instrument associated with the concept of virtual community — what is the virtual community today? How is it organized from within? The empirical part of the article is a thick analytical description of the virtual community “Forum Vinskogo.” Exposing findings of their study, authors estimate the possibility of virtual touristic community to be a form of modern market services.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.