Проблемы российской высшей школы. (Реферативный обзор публикаций в отечественной периодической печати за 2011-2012 гг.)
Higher education is valued as a source of skills and knowledge, and also as means to signal а talent of degree holders. The second of these benefits, unlike the first one, could survive a decline of academic standards. A model of post-secondary education is considered where there are two categories of universities - mass and elite, and their separation is maintained by collective reputation. The model produces an equilibrium in which the university system can still be used for signaling but makes no contribution to the human capital accumulation. The model describes the outcomes of the recent transformation of the Russian university system which was driven primarily by the profit-seeking motives and witnessed precipitous drop of the quality of post-secondary education in both mass and elite segments. That model can also be used to assess policy reforms intended to make higher education more accessible and strengthen incentives for quality.
The article is devoted to a problem of the organization of educational dialogue in the higher school. Author's definition of educational dialogue is given. The pedagogical model including stages of the organization of educational dialogue, principles and conditions of its organization and expected results are presented. The given model is directed on professional-personal formation of the future expert and increase of learning efficiency.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.