Производительность труда и стоимость рабочей силы: как рождаются статистические иллюзии
The shift from a centrally planned to a market-based economy involves, amongst other elements, the restructuring of state-owned or privatized enterprises. Realigning product lines, adopting new technology and imposing sound finances are all important stages in the integration of enterprises into world markets.
This book analyses the efficiency and equity of the economic restructuring in the two largest successor states of the Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine. It raises important questions such as why these countries have been relatively slow to pursue restructuring policies, how the transition has affected labour markets and institutions, and how it impacted on poverty and social safety. The analysis is based on a careful examination of micro-level data, documenting the experiences of and interactions between individuals and institutions.
The article presents analysis of the impact of human resource management systems (HRM) on the financial performance of banks operating in the Russian market. The sample includes 67 banks with different organizational characteristics (nationality of capital, ownership, lo-cation of the head office, number of years of operation in the Russian market). The research is based both on qualitative (a survey of heads of HR services of banks) and quantitative (analysis of financial statements of banks). Data were collected in the period from 2011 to 2015. Initially, the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of the HRM system (labor productivity and return on investment in human capital), as well as indicators of the financial performance of banks (return on assets and return on capital), were calculated. Further, with the help of the system of econometric equations, the impact of performance indicators of HRM systems on financial results of banks was determined. The study revealed that, on one hand, implementation of the functions of the HRM system does not have a positive impact on financial performance of the bank. At the same time, the impact of effects of some particular variables characterizing the HRM system itself (orientation on the strategic goals of the bank, the composition of the functions performed, the automation of functions, the flexibility and innovation of the HRM system, the amount of personnel costs) on performance of banks was revealed. So, the positive effect of the HRM system arises from its orientation towards the strategic goals of the bank, as well as with the use of electronic systems that automate the functions of HRM and thus improving the timing and quality of their implementation. Together, these variables, characterizing the HRM system, increase the return on investment in human capital. If the bank also achieves the flexibility and innovation of the HRM system, then labor productivity also increases. This, in turn, has a positive impact on the financial performance of banks.
In this paper the public-private wage gap is estimated by means both of the OLS and the quantile regression, which will provide a more complex picture of the distribution of the public-private sector wage gap. The author finds the existence of significant public-private wage gap (about 30%) considering both observable and unobservable characteristics of workers and jobs. Using the decomposition based on quantile regression helps to answer the question about the nature of the wage differences. The author comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the gap is the institutional mechanisms of public sector wages in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) 2000-2010.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.