Former Soviet Union countries and European Union: overcoming the energy efficiency gap
This article presents material from literature and responses from national experts about social work developments in the 15 Former Soviet Union (FSU) states, since independence in 1991. Taking professionalization as a theoretical framework and considering the role of the state and other actors, the authors use a thematic approach to analyse the factors relevant to the professional project. Throughout the region, the state is identified as still the major actor in driving welfare changes and creating the organizational and legislative bases for the development of social work. A chronology of legislation relevant to the establishment of social work is included which highlights the variations in the pace of developments, as do the establishment of professional education (throughout the region) and professional associations (in most countries). The authors conclude that the professional project faces many challenges across the FSU region and the progress made – or lack of it in some countries – can be related to the politics and economics of particular states. However, the evidence suggests that, less than a quarter of a century after the demise of communism, this project has been initiated in all but one FSU countries and there are indications of positive developments.
Do human capital endowments trump location for knowledge-intensive industries? This paper takes advantage of a natural experiment created by the end of the Soviet planned economy in 1991, which had geographically distributed R&D manpower according to planned needs as opposed to a distribution determined by a market economy. It examines the extent to which the planned economy created a path-dependence in the location of post-Soviet human-capital intensive production. The study finds that regions with more R&D personnel in 1991did better in the development of modern market-oriented knowledge-intensive business services, like engineering and IT. Several explanations are offered for this path-dependence, with an emphasis on human capital externalities being the most plausible.
The article address the problem of the Soviet economic reforms in 1939-1941 in Western Belarus, analyzes methods of this policy implementing and its consequences. In addition, the author focuses on the history of Jewish population in Western Belarus at that time, because the Jews have been the major participants in the economic life of the region for a long time. On the basis of used materials in the article submits a conclusion about the impact of economic problems on the Sovietization of the entire population of the former Polish territories and in particular on local Jews.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.