Категории вины и смирения в системе ценностей церковно-приходской субкультуры
Collection of studies centered on personalities od the king (later emperor) Frederic III Habsburg (1440-93), his secretary, the humanist Enea Silivio Piccolomini, the future pope Pius II (1458-64), and their mileu.
En 1543 Pierre Galland, recteur de l'Université de Paris et plus tard un des lecteurs royaux qui furent à l'origine du Collège de France, s'inspirant de l'argumentation humaniste tenta de diminuer la durée des études de philosophie. La durée des études, déjà réduite de cinq ans à trois ans et demi, pourrait être abbrégée encore d'une année. On croyait que cette dernière année était inutile et qu les études trop longues ne faisaient que détourner les étudiants de la philosophie. Néanmoins cette réforme rencontra l'oppostion acharnée des théologues parisiens. Qui étaient les héros principaux de ce conflit? De quoi dépendait leur argumentation? Quels problèmes se trouvaient à l'épicentre de la lutte? Des documents notariés, malgré leur forme stricte ou bien grâce à elle, ainsi que des aspects institutionnelles de l'histoire universitaire nous aident à trouver des traits nouveaux dans cette collision.
In his 1961 article Theodoros Gazes als griechischer Patriot Johannes Irmscher studied the “patriotism” of Theodore Gaza, but he has not touched upon the relationship between Gaza’s Greek identity and his humanist-tinged perception of the Latins. Continuing the research started by Irmscher, I propose a close reading of passages from several Gaza’s works in order to demonstrate that his Byzantine self-identification lost its essential Roman component, conceded to the Italians in view of the Renaissance appeal to the past. Thus I would like to attract attention to the role of humanism in the trend of Greek identity development.
The article is devoted to the role of the language and education in foundation of humane society. Some methods and approaches offered in the article can help teachers to form positive thinking of their students who are part of humane society.
The world is changing. From shopping malls to transport terminals, aircraft to passenger ships, the infrastructure of society has to cope with ever more intense and complex flows of people. Today, more than ever, safety, efficiency and comfort are issues that must be addressed by all designers. The World Trade Centre disaster brought into tragic focus the need for well-designed evacuation systems. The new regulatory framework in the marine industry, acknowledges not only the importance of ensuring that the built environment is safe, but also the central role that evacuation simulation can play in achieving this.
An additional need is to design spaces for efficiency – ensuring that maximum throughput can be achieved during normal operations – and comfort – ensuring that the resulting flows offer little opportunity for needless queuing or excessive congestion. These complex demands challenge traditional prescriptive design guides and regulations. Designers and regulators are consequently turning to performance-based analysis and regulations facilitated by the new generation of people movement models.
In the article was analyzed the Lorenzo Valla’s attempt to apply the methods of the philological criticism to the juridical texts. I am showing that the humanist method used by Valla was inadequate for this purpose and that the famous humanist had used the illegitimate arguments proving his position.
This paper deals with the humanist reception of St. Basil’s homily In illud: attende tibi ipsi up to 1532. In the XV cent., three new Latin translations were made in the circle of cardinal Bessarion: by Bessarion himself, by his protégé Athanasius Chalkeopulos, and by an anonymous author, probably Pietro Balbi. The translation of Franciscus Maturantius was published as a separate edition in 1522, and that of Rafaelle Maffei appeared in the first Latin Opera of Basil in 1515. A review of these translations and of the dedicatory epistles shows that not only the humanistic program or theological views of Basil were of interest for the humanists. Attende tibi is valued as an example of biblical exegesis and because of its moral and ascetic content. Although, on the whole, the reception centers in this period tend to distance from the Church, all our translators, except for one, are associated with the Roman Catholic Church. The comparison of the biblical “give heed to thyself” with the Delphic “know thyself”, found in Maturantius’ dedicatory letter and in Maffei’s marginalia, aims at demonstrating the superiority of Christian wisdom, not at promoting the study of philosophy. Only two of the discussed translations were published, and a more or less large-scale dissemination of Basilius Latinus starts no earlier than in the 20s. of XVI cent., when the translation of Maffei was reissued in Paris (1520 and 1523), Cologne (in 1523 and 1531) and Basel (1523).