Кто они, мелкие и средние предприниматели? Мысли о себе, о жизни и о стране (социологический портрет)
The article deals with the influence of Spanish Constitution in 1812 to constitutional ideas and projects of the Decembrists. It is represented in the historical context of the interest to foreign constitutional experience of Russian society in the first quarter of the XIX century. The author analyzes the impact of the Constitution of 1812 to the ‘Russkaya Pravda” (Russian Truth) written by P.Pestel, one of the leaders of the Southern secret society, which is detected in borrowing some ideas for the design of the constitutional and legal institutions. Particular attention is given to the constitutional draft of N.Muraviov, a member of the Northern secret society. All three editions of his projects were influenced by the Constitution of 1812. It is noticed in following: first, in the literal reproduction of the two articles of the Spanish law in the first and second editions, and secondly, the Spanish experience was borrowed in all three editions of the project to formalize various constitutional institutions (the status of the emperor, the right to vote and others).
El español aunque tiene muy poco que ver en muchos aspectos con los habitantes del norte y centro de Europa, es europeo y latino, por su historia y por su cultura. A pesar de todo, algunos dicen que «África empieza en los Pirineos», y esto se debe a la dominación árabe de duración de casi ocho siglos. Para mucha gente, los españoles son personas pequeñas, morenas que pasan la vida cantando y bailando flamenco, son muy aficionados a la corridas de toros, que les gusta mucho perder el tiempo hablando de todo en las tertulias en la sobremesa y que cuando están contentos, que es muy frecunte, dicem «olé». Esta idea es falsa.
The article examines long-lasting confrontation between Spanish Inquisition and Conversos (and, later, Sephardi Jews in Portuguese Diaspora) as a contest in such intangible values as sanctity, honour and merits deserving memory of next generations. These values were believed to be acquired first and foremost through martyrdom. Martyrological theme and potlatch-like scenarios are traced through a wide range of sources: inquisitorial records, Sephardi and Spanish chronicles and Portuguese poetry.
This article investigates responses of Soviet schoolchildren of middle and older ages towards the Spanish Civil War and the arrival of Republican children to the USSR in the second half of the 1930s. Interest in reactions of this age category is connected with the fact that soon after they would bear the brunt of sacrifices in the struggle with Nazi Germany and received the status of front-line generation. Emotionally perceived events in a distant country became the source of its ideas about the future total war of the USSR and an important frontier in psychological preparation for it. Despite the refusal of the country’s political leadership to foment a revolution in Spain, this idea was guiding for young Soviet citizens. The Republican struggle, meaningful as an outbreak of world revolution, gave rise to their various manifestations of solidarity, including the collection of funds, attempts of individual and group escapes to Spain, and the self-organization of paramilitary units to join international teams. In the light of the dramatic experience of the Spanish Republicans, the future of the communist project among Soviet youth was now linked only to the fierce war that the Soviet Union was to withstand with some not necessarily decisive support from the progressive world community.