Полог над бездной
The concept «transdisciplinarity» genetically goes back to the «interdisciplinarity» designating the important changes that occur in relations between science and culture. «Interdis- ciplinarity» is the major characteristic of a science on the transi- tion from «classical» to «the nonclassical» status. «Transdiscipli- narity» characterizes the science at a «postnonclassical» stage of its development. Both concepts connect the philosophy of science with the philosophy of culture.
An Essay Review of Lorraine Daston/Peter Galison: Objectivity.
Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a decision enforced by an ethos as well as by an epistemology. As Daston and Galison argue, atlases shape the subjects as well as the objects of science. To pursue objectivity--or truth-to-nature or trained judgment--is simultaneously to cultivate a distinctive scientific self wherein knowing and knower converge. Moreover, the very point at which they visibly converge is in the very act of seeing not as a separate individual but as a member of a particular scientific community. Embedded in the atlas image, therefore, are the traces of consequential choices about knowledge, persona, and collective sight. Objectivity is a book addressed to anyone interested in the elusive and crucial notion of objectivity-- and in what it means to peer into the world scientifically. Lorraine Daston is Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, Germany. She is the coauthor of Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150-1750 and the editor of Things That Talk: Object Lessons from Art and Science (both Zone Books). Peter Galison is Pellegrino University Professor of the History of Science and of Physics at Harvard University. He is the author of Einstein's Clocks, Poincaré's Maps: Empires of Time, How Experiments End, and Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics, and other books, and coeditor (with Emily Thompson) of The Architecture of Science (MIT Press, 1999).
In this paper, we propose to utilize the methods of network analysis to analyze the relationship between various elements that constitute any particular research in social sciences. Four levels that determine a design of the research can be established: ontological and epistemological assumptions that determine what is the reality under the study and how can we obtain the knowledge about it; a general methodological frame that defines the object of the study and a spectrum of research questions we are allowed to pose; and, finally, a list of methods that we might use in order to get answers. All these levels are interrelated, sometimes in very confusing way. We propose to extract a preliminary set of relations between various elements from textbooks on methodology of social and political sciences and to visualize and analyze their relations using network analytic methods.