«Исключается из школы совсем»: Приказы директора в школьной повседневности
Main focus of this article is on narrative representation of the school discipline (student resistance, incompliance and conflicts with teachers) in Russian school folklore and official school documents in the second half of the 20th century. Two genres of school jokes (written and oral), school rules and official lists of allowed punishments were compared. Concept of discipline is operationalized as disciplinary episodes depicting student infringements or disciplinary acts (punishments) taken by teachers. Distribution of infringements and punishments among studied genres and genre differences in perspective on the same disciplinary episodes discover subtle borders between official and unofficial view on discipline in Soviet school. Also I suggest several semantic categories, guiding narrative representation of school discipline: isomorphism of disciplinary and schooling processes, risk involved in initiating disciplinary conflict, connection between discipline and everyday school routine, internal structure of disciplinary system (hierarchy of punishments).
This article presents a case study of Soviet teachers' professional identity based on interviews with former teachers of railroad-sponsored schools in Orenburg region. This group demonstrates very high loyalty to their institutions and high percieved professional autonomy and status. The proposed level of explanation for the specific professional identity of the studied group is that of structure of local pedagogical community and it's relations with educational authorities. All Soviet railroad-sponsored schools were subordinate not to local educational department but to educational department of railroad branch (often geographically remote). This created two symbolic resources for teachers' professional experience. First, translocal professional community of road branch, and second, administrative barrier between railroad schools and local educational administration, heavily used by former teachers in constructing narratives on professional autonomy.
In article on the basis of a case study examines the everyday life of the Stalinist system. Postwar political campaign was broadcast on the world of Soviet man. The study of conflict within the school community, helps to understand the strength of practices that used an ordinary Soviet people beyond the boundaries of the world of big politics. Professional conflict between the teacher of history and Director of the school suddenly acquired political resonance. The quarrel went outside educational institutions, and became the subject of discussion of various political and administrative authorities. The teacher of history and continued the fight in new institution.
This book develops an educational theory centered around the notion of relation. Alexander M. Sidorkin defines learning as the production of useless things and shows that problems of learning motivation are more institutional than individual or cultural. He then argues that contemporary mass schools are difficult to manage. The solution to the resulting authority crisis is not in the restoration of authority, but in the pedagogy of relation. The key to learning motivation is in what Sidorkin describes as «economy of relations,» a mechanism where personal relations between students and teachers are converted into relations involving curriculum. In order to remain a viable social institution, schools must become hybrid organizations that combine features of a regular school and a neighborhood club, giving teachers should have ample opportunity to build strong relations with and among students.
The article reviews the development of Soviet psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and its contemporary school viewed through the prism of thriving global psychology. The development process is considered to be influencing the establishment of operational approach in Soviet education.