Granularity shifting: Experimental evidence from degree modifiers
This paper argues that modeling granularity and approximation (Krifka 2007; Lewis 1979) is crucial for capturing important aspects of the distribution and interpretation of adjectives and their modifiers, modulo certain differences between modified adjectives and numerals. In addition, the paper presents supporting experimental results with minimizers like slightly and maximizers like completely.
In legal interpretation, where does meaning come from? Law is made from language, yet law, unlike other language-related disciplines, has not so far experienced its “pragmatic turn” towards inference and the construction of meaning. This book investigates to what extent a pragmatically-based view of linguistic and legal interpretation can lead to new theoretical views for law and, in addition, to practical consequences in legal decision-making. With its traditional emphasis on “the letter of the law” and the immutable stability of a text as legal foundation, law has been slow to take the pragmatic perspective: namely, the language-user’s experience and activity in making meaning. More accustomed to literal than to pragmatic notions of meaning, that is, “in” the text rather than constructed by speakers and hearers … the disciplines of law may be culturally resistant to the pragmatic turn. By bringing together the different but complementary perspectives of pragmaticians and lawyers, this book addresses the issue of to what extent legal meaning can be productively analysed as deriving from resources beyond the text, … beyond the letter of the law. This collection re-visits the feasibility of the notion of literal meaning for legal interpretation and, at the same time, the feasibility of pragmatic meaning for law. Can explications of pragmatic meaning support court actions in the same way concepts of literal meaning have traditionally supported statutory interpretations and court judgements? What are the consequences of a user-based view of language for the law, in both its practices of interpretation and its definition of itself as a field? Readers will find in this collection means of approaching such questions, and promising routes for inquiry into the genre- and field-specific characteristics of inference in law. In many respects, the problem of literal vs. pragmatic meaning, confined to the text vs. reaching beyond it, will appear to parallel the dichotomy in law between textualism and intentionalism. There are indeed illuminating connections between the pair of linguistic terms and the more publicly controversial legal ones. But the parallel is not exact, and the linguistic dichotomy is in any case anterior to the legal one. Even as linguistic-pragmatic investigation may serve legal domains, the legal questions themselves point back to central conditions of all linguistic meaning.
This paper describes our approach to document search based on the ontological resources and graph models. The approach is applicable in local networks and local computers. It can be useful for ontology engineering specialists or search specialists.
This monograph contains the translations of two chapters ("Pratyakṣa-lakṣaṇa-parīkṣā" and "Anumāna- parīkṣā") and the studies on the Buddhist epistemology and logic as developed in the compendium of the great Buddhist scholar Śāntarakṣita "Tattvasaṃgraha" ("Collection of categories") and in the commentary "Pañjikā" of Kamalaśīla (both lived in VIII AD). Because Buddhists base their theory through the refutation of competing theories of all major systems, the text contains valuable information on the history of not only Buddhist, but all Indian epistemology and logic.
Introduction, chapters 1 and 3 were written by N. Kanaeva, chapter 2 - by V. Lysenco.
The book is adressed to historians of Philosophy and to the specialists in epistemology and cognitive sciences.
he paper looks into broad-meaning lexical units that lost or are losing their lexical meaning and performing predominantly syntactic function in the generated statement scheme, serving for attaching the dependent component within the frames of the sentence. The verbs delat' and yavl'at's'a as well as names of group MOMENT in the speech of heritage Russian speakers and English speakers learning Russian are analyzed.
The centuries-old development of logical machines is very interesting page of both computer technology and logic history. In fact, logical machines cannot be called the ancestors of modern computers but our analysis allows us to state for surely that these devices were the very first predecessors of contemporary intellectual informational technologies. In this article we give the review of logical machines built before the beginning of computer era. In contrast to the classic book of Martin Gardner «Logic machines and diagrams» (1958) our paper includes descriptions of all known logical machines. Some of them (e.g. devices of Alfred Smee) Gardner described only briefly and some («virtual» logical machine of Jonathan Swift, Round Demonstrator of Earl Stanhope, machines intellectueles of Semion Korsakov, logical machines of Pavel Khruschev and Aleksandr Schukarev) did not mention at all.
Consideration was given to the omega square Cramer–von Mises tests intended to verify the goodness hypothesis about the distribution of the observed multivariable random vector with the distribution in the unit cube. The limit distribution of the statistics of these tests was defined by the distribution of an infinite quadratic form in the normal random variables. For convenience of computing its distribution, the residue of the quadratic form was approximated by a finite linear combination of the χ2-distributed random variables. Formulas for determination of the residue parameters were established.