Peculiarities of preschool educational environment under different programs of education in a preschool educational institution and at home are revealed. Motivational, social and emotional components of school adaptation are determined. It is proved that features of the social situation of development in preschoolers make a huge impact on their attitude to educational activity, schoolmates and a teacher. The results showed that educational environment in kindergartens facilitated a school pupil role taking and a successful school adaptation while home educational environment did not promote such adaptation to a full extent. The content of educational programs in preschool educational institutions has an impact on all aspects of school adaptation: attitude to learning, attitudes to schoolmates and a teacher as well as satisfaction with school as a whole.
The article focuses on the reflection of experience of modernizing pedagogical education on the basis of practical realization of L. S. Vygotsky’s ideas of cultural and historical psychology. It is shown how the basic ideas of L. S. Vygotsky (such ideas as the development as mastering of culture, age, a ratio of education and development in the zone of proximal development, about change of the social situation of development and crises of growing, about roundabout ways of development, about causal life history, about the highest mental functions, about everyday and conceptual thinking, etc.) can become a methodological basis for designing the process of teacher training for variable practice of the developing education. «From action to a thought» and social constructivism as a way of activity in a situation of uncertainty and variability became the fundamental principles of modernization of the pedagogical education.