Карты коррупционных рисков органов власти как ключевой фактор контроля добросовестности в государственном управлении
The efficiency of social reforms in different countries mostly depends on the extent to which they can be accepted by people. Moreover, even if the problems are similar, the reasons may differ, which can lead to fail in applying existing laws of one state to another one. Bribery, as shows the Corruption Perception Index, calculated by Transparency International, is a typical problem for developing countries – that also matches research (Levin & Satarov, 2000; Ilzetzki, 2010) concluding that corruption has roots in socialist regimes and that in recently established political stability instable economic situation leads to growth in crime. The main problem within the scope of this project is to identify the relation between corruption perception and level of trust in the society and to distinguish the differences in factors affecting these characteristics in post-soviet countries. The research discoveres that distrust matters a lot for the problem in Russia and suggests further examining European countries in order to explain the difference in trust.
In this article history of university periodicals is approached as a history of practices of state administration, self-regulation of university corporation, professional self-organization, and normalization of different aspects of the university life. Research for this article has been carried out in the archives of Moscow University and Kazan University, and in the manuscript divisions of these universities’ libraries, as well as in the Archive of the Ministry of Public Education. Documents preserved in these collections reveal intentions of the publishers and circumstances surrounding the appearance of various periodicals in the first half of the nineteenth century. Another group of historical sources analyzed in this article consists of publications in university periodicals themselves. The authors show how the state policies regulating the market of the university press, on the one hand, and initiatives of university professors, on the other, influenced the configuration of the corporation of the university faculty, its internal hierarchies and accepted criteria of academic excellence. The article seeks to answer the question how politics and content of university journalism stimulated academic competition and created reputations.