Routing in Networks-on-Chip with Circulant Topology with Three Generatrices of Type C(N;S1,S2,S3)
The paper presents the implementation of a dynamic routing algorithm intended for use in networks-on-chip with a circulant topology with three generatrices of type C(N; s1, s2, s3) for finding the shortest routes between any two network nodes. The algorithm can be implemented as a RTL state machine in routers for NoCs. The proposed algorithm was tested on sets of optimal circulants. Compared with the classical algorithms A* or Dijkstra, the proposed algorithm does not require to calculate the entire path of the packet, but calculates the port number to which the packet should be sent so that it can reach the destination node. This makes it possible to significantly simplify the structure of the NoC router.
This is the first book on the U.S. presidential election system to analyze the basic principles underlying the design of the existing system and those at the heart of competing proposals for improving the system. The book discusses how the use of some election rules embedded in the U.S. Constitution and in the Presidential Succession Act may cause skewed or weird election outcomes and election stalemates. The book argues that the act may not cover some rare though possible situations which the Twentieth Amendment authorizes Congress to address. Also, the book questions the constitutionality of the National Popular Vote Plan to introduce a direct popular presidential election de facto, without amending the Constitution, and addresses the plan’s “Achilles’ Heel.” In particular, the book shows that the plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Numerical examples are provided to show that the counterintuitive claims of the NPV originators and proponents that the plan will encourage presidential candidates to “chase” every vote in every state do not have any grounds. Finally, the book proposes a plan for improving the election system by combining at the national level the “one state, one vote” principle – embedded in the Constitution – and the “one person, one vote” principle. Under this plan no state loses its current Electoral College benefits while all the states gain more attention of presidential candidates.
The problem from the area of Personology of Self, being the most important part of general personology, is studied in this paper. The paper offers the model of basic features and abilities of Self. The role of ability of Self to be its own ability, the ability which integrates many intentions of “I can” type depending on life tasks faced by the personality, is stressed. Existential value of the task to be effective in dialog based on the intention “I express myself” is substantiated. The model of narration, the model of author’s reflection in the moment of narration and three-dimensional topological model of ability of Self to express itself in the dialog are offered.
A new type of massless Dirac fermions in crystalline three_dimensional topological insulators (three_dimen_sional two_dimensional situation) has been predicted. The spectrum has fourfold degeneracy at the top of the two_dimensional Brillouin zone (M point) and twofold degeneracy near the M point. Crystal symmetry along with the time reversal invariance in three_dimensional topological insulators allows fourfold degenerate Dirac cones, which are absent in the classification of topological features in R._J. Slager et al., Nat. Phys. 9, 98 (2013). The Hamiltonian in the cited work does not contain Dirac singularities with more than twofold degeneracy. For this reason, the corresponding topological classification is incomplete. The longitudinal magnetic field in the spinless case holds the massless dispersion law of fermions and does not lift fourfold degeneracy. In the spinor case, the magnetic field lifts fourfold degeneracy, holding only twofold degeneracy, and results in the appearance of a band gap in the spectrum of fermions.
Traffic classification is a core problem underlying efficient implementation of network services. In this work we draw from our experience in classifier design for commercial systems to address this problem in SDN and OpenFlow. We identify methods from other fields of computer science and show research directions that can be applied for efficient design of packet classifiers. Proposed abstractions and design patterns can significantly reduce requirements on network elements and enable deployment of functionality that would be infeasible in a traditional way.
Recently much attention has been devoted to the optimization of transportation networks in a given geographic area. One assumes the distributions of population and of services/workplaces (i.e. the network's sources and sinks) are known, as well as the costs of movement with/without the network, and the cost of constructing/maintaining it. Both the long-term optimization and the short-term, "who goes where" optimization are considered. These models can also be adapted for the optimization of other types of networks, such as telecommunications, pipeline or drainage networks. In the monograph we study the most general problem settings, namely, when neither the shape nor even the topology of the network to be constructed is known a priori.
On the basis of an integrated network-on-chip (NoC) topologies optimality criterion, as well as applying the adjacency matrix to describe NoC topologies, exhaustive search method and its modification by using branch and bound and Monte Carlo methods are extended to the synthesis of NoC quasi-optimal topologies. Designed ScaNoC suboptimal topology synthesis algorithm is implemented on a high-level programming language which makes it possible to generate quasi-optimal topological solutions in accordance with the requirements to reduce hardware costs and the average distance between nodes. Proposed quasi-optimal topologies synthesis algorithm improvement by using the method of parallel computing allows speeding up the process of synthesis to 2117 times and getting topologies with the number of nodes up to 18.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Wireless Access Flexibility, WiFlex 2013, held in Kaliningrad, Russia, in September 2013. The 13 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this volume. The papers describe the latest results and novel research ideas in the field of flexible wireless access architecture design opening the door for innovative solutions significantly improving network performance. The following topics are covered in this volume: 4G and beyond, local area networks, multi-hop networks, sensor networks.