Water Treatment and Purification: Technological Responses to Grand Challenges
One of the most important issues for the world society in the XXI century is a task to provide pure water for citizens. As evidenced results of expert survey, made by the Higher School of Economics
significant part of water sources for drinking water in Russia doesn’t meet necessary requirements. And one of the most adequate solutions to meet this challenge is using the nanotechnologies in processes of water purification that can solve the set of problems such as polluted sources, obsolete equipment, increased risk of diseases etc. Roadmap “Applying Nanotechnology to Water Treatment” was launched by summarizing opinions of expert community participants both national and foreign regarding the most significant nanotechnologies and products made with their help which are used or can be used for water treatment and purification purposes. The aim of the research is to make special innovation routes R&D-technologies-products-markets that could be used by federal and regional authorities and Russian companies working in the field of water purification. The roadmap becomes the first largescale national foresight exercise in the area of nanotechnologies for water purification.
On the Russian population opinion one of the most urgent ecology problems is the water pollution. By the data of Russian Federal Consumer Rights Protection and Human Health Control Service about 37% of the surface sources of centralized drinking water supply don`t meet sanitary norms and rules and 22% of Russian citizens do not have access to centralized water supply .
The study outlined three possible ways of overcoming above marked problems. The first method is based on the modern industrial-management scheme which is traditional for water provision in Russia. The second option suggests cleaning up sources of water intakes. The third way shows an option of varying treatment methods and technologies, depending on customer needs.
The Roadmap developed by Higher School of Economics and Rusnano indentified that nanotechnologies increase the efficiency and decrease energy consumption of traditional as well as innovation processes of water purification. In particular the perspective area of nanotechnology application is lies in the sphere of innovation sorbents and coagulants. Moreover nanotechnologies can also be used in baromembrane processes and membrane bioreactors.
Innovation technologies, processes and products implementation should be specific to individual regions and municipalities. This approach is based on the compliance of centralized and decentralized water supply, inlet and outlet water quality.
The Roadmap results are designed for the formation of government and regional policy on the pure water provision for population and industrial water treatment. Furthermore it indicates the most relevant business ideas and evaluates projects for nanotechnology and nanoproducts used in this field.
The article analyzes problems of planning research and technological development. We consider two lines of theoretical concepts of planning, i.e., economic and mathematical versus empirical and evolu tionary. Problems of the statistical basis for constructing economic and mathematical models of scientific and technological development are studied in detail. The example of Russia is used to show that the weakness of the theoretical framework of planning leads to inconsistencies in government priorities of scientific and tech nological development.
The topic of organizational change became quite popular in recent publications of researchers and practitioners all over the world. This interest can be explained by growing market turbulence and highly dynamic development of technologies that dramatically change landscapes of particular industries. Companies that fail to change in accordance with those new trends, or cannot foresee those trends and change before they become real, are condemned to quick death. Most academic publications in this area are focused on the process and mechanisms of conducting changes in organizations, and in many cases they proceed from several simplifications related to availability of personnel of certain qualification and irreversible nature of particular changes. In this regard, many authors who try to simulate the process of organizational change under ideal conditions of the theory, reach a deadlock in practical situations when the process of implementing changes cannot even be started because it is not possible to recruit specialists of required qualifications and skills. In many cases because of the time pressure it is not even possible to provide existing specialists with additional training. Thus, it is easy to see that while simplifications cannot be implemented, and indeed these are 90% of cases of real businesses, the value of theoretical advancements in the field of practical organizational change is decreased. All this leads to the situation when theorists and practitioners exist in parallel worlds and are quite skeptical about each other’s activity. Authors of the paper for a number of years combine research and academic activity with practical managerial work on Russian plants. The paper examines particular specifics and conditions of conducting necessary changes in organizations which are “not equipped” with employees of needed qualification and there are limited opportunities to improve the situation because of the tight schedule of changes. Results of research conducted by authors will be essential, first of all, for small and medium businesses that function under considerable limitations of internal and external organizational resources.
This paper reflects on the potential of future-oriented analysis (FTA) to address major change and to support decision-makers and other stakeholders in anticipating and dealing with transformations. It does so by critically reflecting on the selected papers for this special issue as well as on the discussions that took place at the fourth Seville International Conference on Future-oriented Technology Analysis. Considering the potential roles of FTA in enabling a better understanding of complex situations and in defining effective policy responses leads to the understanding that appropriate FTA practices are needed to enable FTA to fulfil such roles. Dealing with disruptive changes - and grand challenges in particular -, therefore, raises several conceptual, methodological and operational issues. Two of them are general, while further two are specific to the so-called grand challenges: i) distinguish known unknowns, unknown knows and unknown unknowns, ii) combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a relevant and feasible way, iii) understand the complex and systemic nature of grand challenges, and iv) orchestrate joint responses to grand challenges. After a brief explanation of these issues, the paper outlines the main ideas of the papers published in this special issue. These present various methodological aspects of FTA approaches as well as some advances needed in practice to assist FTA practitioners and stakeholders in comprehending transformations and in tackling the so-called grand challenges.
This monograph focuses on the nature of factors and mechanisms of the innovation processes in the Regional innovation systems with catch-up type of economy. The monograph shows that the further development of cooperation of innovation entities and the development of technological entrepreneurship in the regions of Russia is impossible without a planned and systematic processes of regionalization of the innovation business ecosystem.
The monograph substantiates that the state-owned private Regional Center for Incubation and Acceleration and the multifunctional state Single Regional Investment Fund should become the basis for the development of the ecosystem of innovative entrepreneurship in the region of the country.
The monograph is intended for researchers, graduate students, students specializing in the field of innovation management, as well as managers and decision makers who are responsible for the development of regional innovation systems.
The purpose of the proceedings is to improve the relationship between climate and environment changes and human activities with specific focus on water related matters. The main themes of the proceedings are:Climate and Hydrology, Water, Environment and Human Activities, Water Related Risks, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, Computing and Technologies in Water sector