Le bestiaire médiéval dans un contexte surréaliste : à propos d’une traduction de Slovo o polku Igoreve par Philippe Soupault
The article is devoted to the matters of poetry translation and gives a contrastive analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “So that you remember me not an hour or a year” and its English version suggested by Christopher Whyte. The article is focused on the transformations (voluntary – conscious as well as subconscious; and involuntary – caused by the difference of the language material, e.g. diminutives, impersonal constructions characteristic of the Russian language which lack in the English language etc.) made by Whyte when translating the original text. The comparative analysis showed that in the translation the following sense generating elements of the original were lost: the form of folk spell in which the original is written; the song form of the poem, which refers the reader to a Russian folk song genre “chastushka; folk vocabulary; the image of a seven string guitar; the magic halo оf a magician around the figure of the speaker of the poem and the “Spanish colour”. As the result of this is, in the English version the tension between stylistically low – folk and high – romantic characteristic of the original disappears. The translation, like the original, has qualities of a song but it gives a sensation of a romantic song, exclusively. The translator “modernizers” Tsvetaeva’s poem: he leaves capitals in the beginning of the lines only when it is allowed by the punctuation, and converts rhymed syllabo-tonic verse into unrhymed free verse.
The paper analyzes potential words and forms in original poetry by Nika Skandiaki as compared to those in her poetic translations. Focusing on the difference between the occasional and the potential in poetic language, and suggesting a quantitative criterion if such differentiation, the author draws a conclusion that in the language of original Russian poetry the occasional is more significant than the potential, and in the language of poetic translations - vice versa, for the strategies of a poet and of a translator are different.
The paper outlines the history of poetic translations of W.H. Auden into Russian, from those included in M. Gutner’s Anthology Of The New English Poetry (1937) to anthology and magazine publications of the 1970s, to two monographic collections of verse printed within a short interval of time at the turn of the 21st (Auden, W.H. Collection of Verse, trans. V. Toporov, 1997; Auden, W.H. Labyrinth, trans. V.P.Shestakov, 2003) and discusses them in the context of the canon. The issue of writing poetic translation into the canon is addressed in both historical and translation study perspectives along the lines introduced by Andre Lefevere in his works Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame (1992) and Translating Literature: Practice and Theory in a Comparative Literature Framework (1992). Historically, the key publications are considered in the international context of both Auden and canon-formation. In this respect the 1930s deserve a special attention as the time of constructing of the canon of modern poetry, i.e. time of anthologies, both internationally (Faber Book of Modern Verse (1936) and Oxford Book of Modern Verse, 1892-1935 (1936)) and in the USSR (apart from Gutner’s anthology the paper discusses the approach to forming the canon of the International Literature magazine and their correspondence with Auden concerning translation of his verse in 1938). The popularity of the British-American poet in the late Soviet time and the first post-Soviet decade is also considered against the canon-forming processes in the West and the concept of world literature.