The present study focuses on personality factors which determine the effectiveness of the individual innovative activity. I analyzed relations between the most important psychological determinants of innovation: personal innovativeness, creativity, average intelligence, and novelty seeking. Obtained data showed that there is no significant correlation between innovativeness and creativity. This finding contradicts the idea that creativity and personal innovativeness closely relate to each other. But it looks as a partial support for the statement that creativity is the first step in future innovations. Performed analysis revealed no significant correlation between innovativeness and average intelligence. On the contrary, a correlation between personal innovativeness and novelty seeking was significantly positive (rs=.4, p<0.05). Results of the study can be applied to various procedures and stages of the innovation management.
The article represents the materials devoted to the issue of ability development in comprehensive school. The results of subject qualities investigation as determinants of students’ effective intellectual development in educational process are referred to in the article. The author propose the approach to interpretation of such psychological categories as ‘subject’ and ‘subject’s qualities’ (subjectness). In the theoretical propositions review the approaches to subjectness particular model development that identify efficacy of various activities are described. The model of subjectness revealed at the students’ abilities development and results of its (model) experimental examination are discussed in the present article. The work might be interesting both in theoretical and in a particular applied aspects. Its results are of high actuality for the pedagogical systems oriented to the most effective students’ development.
The present study aims to identify the relationship between intellectual abilities and the motives of occupational choice. Results of the study suggest what motives of occupational choice related to the level of certain intellectual abilities. So, for example, the negative connection between the level of mathematical abilities and the “career”, “confidence” and “authority” motives were found. The level of the “formallogic” ability is negatively related to the “joining”, “confidence” and “public benefit” motives. Most of the identified interrelations are negative. In particular, it was shown that respondents with the lower levels of intellectual abilities assessed the importance of majority motives much higher than respondents with the higher levels of various abilities in our sample. A new method intended to identify different motives of occupational choice was developed during this work. According to its results the factor structure of occupational choice motives has been obtained.
Programmer's professional activity requires an amount of work with different artificial languages. Many studies report that effective programming is correlated with the high level of verbal intelligence. In this paper we study the dynamics of artificial language learning among programmers in comparison with psychologists and the group of non-professional users. We show that programmers learn artificial language in a different way, then the other groups, and this difference is based on their professional requirements.
Decision-makers at all levels are being confronted with novel complexities and uncertainties and face long-term challenges which require foresight about long-term future prospects, assumptions, and strategies. This book explores how foresight studies can be systematically undertaken and used in this context. It explicates why and how methods like horizon scanning, scenario planning, and roadmapping should be applied when dealing with high levels of uncertainty. The scope of the book moves beyond “narrow” technology foresight, towards addressing systemic interrelations between social, technological, economic, environmental, and political systems. Applications of foresight tools to such fields as energy, cities, health, transportation, education, and sustainability are considered as well as enabling technologies including nano-, bio-, and information technologies and cognitive sciences. The approaches will be illustrated with specific actual cases.
Russian migrant communities in Europe, as well as the USSR and European states’ policies towards them, were sufficiently studied in English-, French- and Russian-language relevant scholarship. However, West and South Asia received significantly less attention, although the region served the main transit zone in this process, especially the countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and even British India. During the interwar period hundreds of thousands of migrants from Soviet Russia either passed through these Southern regions towards Europe and the United States or founded their migrant communities there. These migrants became an integral part of political activism professed by Russian émigré communities all over the world in the 1920s-30s. This quite often resulted in them being manipulated on a massive scale by other governments in their foreign policies toward Soviet Russia, especially by Britain – Russia’s traditional rival in the region. On the other hand, the positions of the Soviet government in political and military terms toward its southern neighbours were significantly stronger than those in Europe. Having an upper hand in its relations with these states, the Soviet government would resort to military invasions, large-scale intelligence operations, the massive bribing of local police and the military, particularly in the border areas, as well as to imposing inter-state border-control treaties, − all this done with the aim to neutralise the anti-Soviet émigré activities and to physically liquidate their active representatives abroad as well as to conduce to the repatriation of larger numbers for subsequent prosecution on the Soviet territory.
Methodologically drawing on the most recent works in Migration Studies, in general, and in Russian Emigré Studies, in particular, the current research studies migration from the USSR into the neighbouring countries of West and South Asia – one of the most strategically important regions in the twentieth century. Within the timeframe 1917-1930, research looks into the phenomena, such as displaced statehood, political activism and cross-cultural interaction in the context of the migration policies of the relevant states (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Britain and the USSR). The primary-source base of this research consists of mostly untapped documents from British, Russian, French, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Iranian archives and the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, collections as well as memoirs and private correspondence of migrants themselves. While highlighting some commonalities, the paper argues that the situation of Russian migrant communities in West and South Asia diametrically differed from the one in Western Europe, and puts forward a detailed analysis of the causes, developments and outcomes of this phenomenon.