The Role of the Russian Consulates in the Political Processes in Mongolia and Russian-Chinese-Mongolian Political Relations of the Early 20th Century
In this paper, based on the solid collection of the archive materials, a part of which has not been introduced before, the author considers the role which the Russian imperial consulates played in the political life of Outer Mongolia and its disputes with China and also in the maintenance of Russia’s good neighborhood with these countries during 1900-1910-s.
The First World War became a watershed in the European and world history. 100 years after the outbreak of the Great War historians continue to debate a role of this milestone event in the development of European civilization. The authors of the monograph try to make their own contribution to this discussion.
Designated for historians and for all those interested in the history of early twentieth-century Europe and Russia.
In the coming decades in the process of globalization the position of the USA and Europe will weaken, while the role of developing countries will increase. The role of the two largest emerging economies – China and India – will be of special significance. What future will these fast-growing giants face? The demographers agree that pretty soon India will lead the world in population and thus surpass China, while China will encounter serious ageing population problems. But economic and political scenarios of the future are quite different: from resounding success and world leadership to collapse caused by demographic and socio-political troubles. Which of them is more feasible? In the present article I analyze the Chinese and Indian development models separately and comparatively and make a forecast of their perspectives in the twenty-first century. Such an analysis could be helpful for understanding Russia's ways of development.
The present article considers the process of the formation, development and weakening of the world order based on the American hegemony. The ori-gins of the current world order are analyzed. The article presents the analysis of the characteristic features and methods applied by the USA to maintain their position in the world. The author shows how globalization has become more favorable for developing countries than for the developed ones. The gradually forming conviction in the inevitable weakening of the US leadership positions is also analyzed. The article describes the characteristics of the current situation in international relations as a situation of a started reconfiguration of the World-System. The latter should mean the coming of the epoch of turbulence and formation of new coalitions. There will take place a transition to a more sustainable world order which will be a difficult task. The second article will consider the direction and ways of the formation of this new world order, the possible principles and mechanisms of its establishment.
The article examines the main aspects of the existence of confidence and mutual suspicion in the modern system of international relations. To study this phenomenon the authors resort to a review of the opposite variants of its manifestations — in conflict and full consent. The paper also attempts to link the phenomenon of confidence to the plurality of interests in the modern development of diplomatic relations, as well to its psychological foundations.