21st Conference of the European Association for Chinese Studies. St. Petersburg, August 23-28, 2016: Book of Abstracts
This book contains the abstracts of the presentations delivered by the participants of the 21st Conference of the European Association for Chinese Studies (Saint-Petersburg, August 23-28, 2016). The materials deal with a large scope of the issues related to the studies of contemporary and traditional China.
In this paper, based on the solid collection of the archive materials, a part of which has not been introduced before, the author considers the role which the Russian imperial consulates played in the political life of Outer Mongolia and its disputes with China and also in the maintenance of Russia’s good neighborhood with these countries during 1900-1910-s.
This collection of original research papers considers urgent social policy issues in East Asian countries in the recent 30 years. Among the topics covered are social policy, social inequality, social work, social management, demography. The main purpose of these works is to better understand the contemporary state of affairs and developmeng of social sector in East Asia.
There are a lot of changes in all spheres of life in China, including art, in the end of 1970. This leads to appearance of new directions in art, also brings the fundamental changes in principles of art of China. Wang Guangyi is considered to be the founder of the Political Pop art. Political Pop art is one of the leading directions in contemporary Chinese art in the beginning of the 90th. This article is devoted to the oeuvre of Wang Guangyi and the process of appearance of Political Pop art, its prerequisites, conceptions and stylistic characteristics.
The rebellion against the Qing Empire initiated by a Gushi Khan’s grandson Lobsang Danjin in 1723– 1724 was an important event not only in the history of Koko Nor (Qinghai) but it also influenced the situation in Jungaria and Tibet. It would not be an exaggeration to regard the suppression of this rebellion by the Manchus as a pivotal event in the history of the eastern Inner Asia. The present article is mainly based on two modern editions of the collected documents in Chinese: “Nian geng yao zou zhe” (“The memorials of Nien Kêng-yao. Ch’ing documents at National Palace Museum”) and “Yong zheng chao han wen zhu pi zou zhe hui bian” (“The collection of the reports to emperor Yongzheng in Chinese with comments”), as well as “The annals of Kokonor” written in Tibetan by Sumpa-kenpo Yeshé- Paljor who witnessed these events. The futile rebellion by Lobsang Danjin was a response to the establishment by military force of the Qing rule in Lhasa in 1720. However, he was not supported by the Jungars and even by the majority of the Hoshot Mongols, his compatriots. In the course of the warfare many Tibetan lamas were massacred and their monasteries were destroyed. Thus the descendents of Gushi Khan had to abandon their claims for the kingship of Tibet, and the suppression of Lobsang Danjin’s rebellion marked the final shift of power over Tibet to the Qing emperors of China. The Yongzheng emperor ably used the conquest of Koko Nor to achieve a firm control over Tibetan population and Buddhist clergy. However, by rebuilding the destroyed monasteries and by executing the Chinese military commander Nian Gengyao he maintained his image of a defender of the Yellow Faith.
In the coming decades in the process of globalization the position of the USA and Europe will weaken, while the role of developing countries will increase. The role of the two largest emerging economies – China and India – will be of special significance. What future will these fast-growing giants face? The demographers agree that pretty soon India will lead the world in population and thus surpass China, while China will encounter serious ageing population problems. But economic and political scenarios of the future are quite different: from resounding success and world leadership to collapse caused by demographic and socio-political troubles. Which of them is more feasible? In the present article I analyze the Chinese and Indian development models separately and comparatively and make a forecast of their perspectives in the twenty-first century. Such an analysis could be helpful for understanding Russia's ways of development.
China's economic success is largely determined by very low population dependency ratio. This situation was a result of the demographic policy in the PRC. However, another consequence of the same policy becomes imminent rapid aging of China's population. It is very likely that by the early 2030s the country after half a century of unprecedented success will enter a period of coping.
The rNying-ma-pa School (lit. “The Old School”, also styled “Red Hat School”) traces its origins to the days of the Tibetan Empire, thus, it has existed throughout the whole recorded Tibetan history. However, in the second millennium AD its clerics did not play a significant role in the political development in Tibet. 122 However, its lamas enjoyed much respect of the Tibetans since they were regarded as the custodians of Tibetan traditions as well as of profound Buddhist knowledge and magic practices. The turbulent events that happened in and around Tibet during the 17th and early 18th centuries significantly affected the position of the rNying-ma-pa. The Mongol interference into Tibetan affaires resulted in the domination of the Gelugpa. The Fifth Dalai Lama demonstrated equal respect towards both the Gelugpa and rNying-ma-pa Schools. Among his teachers were prominent rNying-ma-pa lamas and later he himself wrote many works on rNying-ma-pa practices. Also, he encouraged building rNying-ma-pa monasteries which became major centres of that school. He regarded the rNying-ma-pa as a Tibetan national Buddhist school which was linked to the local Tibetan deities and protective rituals, and for those reasons he opposed its propagation outside Tibet among the Mongols and the Manchus. The prosperity of the rNying-ma-pa ended abruptly with the Dzungar invasion of Tibet in 1717. During three years of occupation all rNying-ma-pa monasteries including the most ancient Tibetan monastery bSam-yas were destroyed, many of its hierarchs and ordinary lamas were killed. Among the reasons behind such repressive actions were accusations of sorcery rites aimed at the Dzungars which were performed by the rNying-ma-pa lamas at the request of Lhabzang Khang, the last Khoshot ruler of Tibet. The intervention of the Qing empire led to the expulsion of the Dzungars from Tibet and the end of the rNying-ma-pas’ persecution. However, in 1726 the Yongzheng emperor issued a decree which limited the activities of the rNying-ma-pa inside Tibet in favour of the Gelugpa School. It seems that this decree was incited by the rivalry of the top Beijing lamas as well the need to overcome the consequences of the cruel suppression of the rebellion in Qinghai in 1723–24 accompanied by the destruction of many holy places of the Gelugpas. This imperial decree did not have much effect because after the outbreak of the civil war in Tibet in 1727 Pholhanas who openly demonstrated his respect towards the rNying-ma-pa School became a winner and subsequently the ruler of Tibet.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.