Constantine Manasses’ versified Chronicle abounds in compound epithets built according to the same model: 2 simple stems from adjectives belonging to the 2nd (often contracted) declension, the 2nd stem is, as a rule, monosyllable. There are tens of epithets sharing common 2nd stem. Yet, the impression of uniformity is misleading. Among seemingly similar adjectives can be distinguished: 1. words borrowed by Manasses from the poetic tradition, 2. neologisms coined by the poet according to the existing model, and 3. words of ambiguous provenance. The article deals with the question of how Manasses himself viewed this limitless creation of new lexemes and speculates on the status of borrowings from rare sources against the backdrop of Manasses’ ability to produce on his own virtually indistinguishable epithets.
“If you don't sin - you cannot repent”: concerning paradoxes of salvation in Rus’ and Byzantium Viktor Zhivov developed the idea that there existed in Orthodox Christian culture a perception of Salvation as a result of pure chance, luck or a trick. The extreme example of such attitude is the following paradox: “If you don't sin - you cannot repent, if you do not repent - you are not saved, consequently, if you do not sin, you cannot be saved”. Al- though such sophistry is a Russian invention, we can trace among Byzantine “spiritually beneficial tales” some vivid illustrations thereof.
Throughout the centuries Byzantium's ambitious authors were conscious of the significance of literary registers for the reception of their texts. They deliberately made use of stylistic elements or refrained from using certain features in order to reach their target audience. There are certain groups of texts dating from various periods where these stylistic elements can be tracked precisely by comparison of two or even more versions with their model text. Such examples of rewriting can be found particularly within genres with a broader audience appeal, namely hagiography and historiography. It is in both genres that we encounter metaphrastic processes, in terms of stylistic elaboration and in terms of stylistic simplification.
As well as stylistic reshaping, metaphrasis may also encompass the addition or removal of literary and/or thematic aspects. All these processes signify intent as well as authorial interpretation. Frequently, the ideological orientation of a text is refurbished through rewriting. Teasing out these strands for exploration helps to supply a potential wealth of information on the author (if known), cultural (social, religious, historical) context, and creative ability, as well as levels of education and literacy.
The results of hagiographic research throughout the world during the last five years. New prospects, new angles, new approaches proposed
The article is dedicated to the history and typology of one of the Byzantine liturgical books.
The article is dedicated to the text critical investigation of the Troparion for the Translation of the Holy Mandylion from Edessa to Constantinople