103-я сессия Комитета ОЭСР по научно-технической политике
The article deals with the problems of interaction between science and technology, innovation and industrial policy in Russia. In spite of the substantial intensification of the state policy in establishing of the new elements of the national innovation system, the coordination between different policies continues to remain weak that leads to inefficient use of resources under tight budget constraints. The author offers a set of actions aimed at improving the coordination.
In recent years research collaboration of BRICS countries in a wide range of subject areas has become a high priority for STI policymakers (see Sokolov et al., 2017). Meanwhile, recent studies in this field confirm that the intensity of intraBRICS collaboration is quite low (see Khan, 2015; Finardi, 2015; Finardi and Buratti, 2016). Our study following the research of Shashnov and Kotsemir (2018) proposes an approach for detection of research areas with relatively low intensity of collaboration between BRICS countries. We also assess the potential for strengthening of intraBRICS collaboration in research areas with missed opportunities of cooperation between BRICS countries.
At the heart of this project is comprehensive Sociological research conducted in Russia by the Centre for Study of Civil Society and Non-Profit Sector, NRU HSE, with support from the Basic Research Program of the National Research University – Higher School of Economics. Using the methodology that parallels that of IAVE’s Global Corporate Volunteering Research Project, the research sample includes three groups of organizations that conduct employee volunteer programs.The results demonstrate that the workplace can be a conducive, safe environment within which workers can express their willingness, as private citizens, to help people in need and to address pressing human, social and environmental problems through volunteering and giving. Those who volunteer through their workplace are more actively involved generally in civil society – both as volunteers and in giving cash donations – than their colleagues who do not volunteer and than the general population.
There are different streams in the literature to explore research collaboration (Acosta et al., 2010; Fantino et al., 2015; Bergé, 2017; Shashnov and Kotsemir, 2018; Kotsemir, 2019). The topic concerning the research collaboration assumes a key role to the development of academic institutions in Italy, where a higher share of fundraising depends on scientific research output. As discussed in the literature (Aldieri et al., 2018), the knowledge flows arisen between researchers from different universities are relevant to enhancing the quality of research and at the same time Italian and Russian universities could improve their interactions with international partners. Paying attention to the Italian case, we intend to investigate the impact of research collaborations on the scientific performance of Italian universities in fields of economics and statistics.
Following this approach, we explore the variables which are the most significant inside the research production function and which could be important instruments to favour less opened institutions. In order to achieve our objective, we consider the following set of variables relative to universities: age and gender of authors; disciplinary field of publications; number of students enrolled; number of administrative staff employed; amount of study grants; foundation year of university; number of spin offs. To evaluate the output of scientific research we use a mean of 5 bibliometric indexes as the IF5Y (the Impact Factor calculated on a period of the last 5 Years), the AIS (Article Influence Score), the IPP (Impact Per Publication) the SJR (SCImago Journal Rank), and the H Index for the period 2010-2014 (see detailed description of all these variables in Aldieri et al., 2019).
The paper reports the results of the cognitive mapping procedure applied to a series of interviews with the reviewers of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The procedure can be qualified as a qualitative research method, which allows to produce a graphic representation of the cognitive content of the respondents’ speech. The interviews touched upon the criteria and methods used by the reviewers in evaluating research proposals, as well as the value basis of the Russian scientific community. Cognitive mapping was applied to 15 interviews, which allowed to conclude that the examined group possessed coincident beliefs in regard to the following themes: recognition of the crucial value of the information about the principal investigator for the review process; understanding basic research not so much as purely curiosity driven but as aimed at a distant practical goal, which is viewed as an argument for funding a wide range of different basic research topics; accentuation of the meaning of earnings and favorable work conditions as motivations to engage in science as opposed to purely creative and self-actualizing motives; accentuation of the emigration of young talented researchers or their choice to engage a different career path as a key problem of science in Russia.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.