Глава 2. Социально-экономический и правовой анализ
Recognizing that social change over recent decades has strengthened the need for early childhood education and care, this book seeks to answer what role this plays in creating and compensating for social inequalities in educational attainment.
Compiling 13 cross-national and multidisciplinary empirical studies on three interrelated topics, this book explores how families from different social backgrounds decide between types of childcare, how important parental care and resources at home are for children’s educational success, and the consequences of early education and care for children’s diverging educational destinies. Analysing a currently neglected area in sociological research, expert contributors employ the most recent country-specific longitudinal datasets in order to provide an up-to-date portrayal of the patterns and mechanisms of early educational inequality.
With its extended analytical window ranging from short- to long-term educational outcomes, this book will undoubtedly appeal to students and scholars in the fields of childcare, education, and social inequality. It also contains important suggestions and evidence for practitioners and policymakers trying to combat inequality in educational opportunities.
The practices of multi-actor child care is described and analyzed in the article. The empirical base is survey of Muscovites with children of 3 to 5 years old in November 2012. The results of the research have showed the significance of the kindergarten services as the institutional service that allowed parents to continue their professional careers. Along with that, the survey has revealed unequal distribution of child-care duties between mothers and fathers. According to opinions of parents, mothers are perceived five times as more involved into child-care than fathers. It is adjusted to the fact of different strategies of job search and placement. Mothers find a job with working hours that is in accordance with preschool schedule, fathers don’t taking into account this point. The policy of compensation for families which children don’t attend the kindergarten is discussed in the conclusion.
The research is aimed to elaboration of the tools to measure the parental evaluation of the municipal preschool service, as a part of complex evaluation of preschool sector of education. The research needs are related to increasing number of types of preschool service providers, appearing nongovernmental providers, competition growing, including municipal sector. On the qualitative part, the individual interviews with parents (N=30) are conducting, the gathered data will be analyzed: coded, classified, and conceptualized to identify scope of parent’s evaluation criteria and parent’s meanings of that criteria.
Since pre-school age, children rely on contextual information while generalizing information about new objects. It is still uncertain what underlies this inductive selectivity; whether it is associative learning, which depends on the numbers of features that an object has, or conceptual learning, which depends on the features’ content. In the first experiment, we varied the contextual information and found that 4-5-year-olds rely more on contextual features of the object (shape and colour of the background), but not on spatial ones (location). In the second experiment we varied the combination of context features and showed that, given a lack of information about an object (shape only), children rely on contextual spatial features more than on the object’s features. Moreover, they prefer not to rely on contextual information at all if the object’s information was modified (same shape but different colour). Together, these results indicate the dependence of inductive selectivity on conceptual learning, not only associative learning.
"Children and society: social reality and innovation" is a collection of more than 170 papers by Russian sociologists from different regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Germany at the all-Russian scientific-practical conference with international participation "Children and society: social reality and innovation". The book presents studies of regional offices and the scientific committees of the Russian society of sociologists, research teams, supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities, groups of educational institutions, which deal with the problems of education, health, family and childhood, ecological and ethnonational problems of childhood, culture and social life in terms of processes of transformation and modernization of the Russian society. The13 parts of the book-lit topical issues of implementation of National strategy of action for children for 2012-2017. That‘s presented actual wide field of contemporary assessment and examination of public policies and civil society efforts to improve the situation of children in the Russian Federation for sociologists, protection of children‘s rights, consideration of the ability of children as independent subjects of social life