Личная этика и метаэтика
The professor of Catholic University San Antonio (Spain) Joaquin Jareno Alarcon`s book "Religion and relativism in the views of Ludwig Wittgenstein" - one of the possible interpretations of the ideas and attitudes of great Austrian philosopher, an attempt to extract the religious perspective from his controversial legacy, hidden behind the logical categories. The author analyzes in detail the sources of Wittgenstein`s religious thinking; discussions around the relativistic (fideist) interpretations, the Austrian philosopher`s contribution in philosophy and logic of language in general and religious ethics, in particular.
In article discusses necessity of a recognition of human advantage as a high humanitarian value, and also discovers the problem of search of the constitutionally-legal maintenance of the concept. The idea of working out of a special index which helps making possible to carry out monitoring of degree of protection of human advantage in the different countries is put forward.
The questions considered in this review of the recently published book "There Is No Such Thing as a Social Science" by Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read, and Wes Sharrock, pertain to the philosophy of the methodology of social sciences: what research problems can sociology study? is it possible for sociology to study social world as an empirical world, and what consequences will this sociologists' empirical attitude toward their subject have? The review explores how the authors of the book, with the help of Peter Winch's philosophy of the social sciences, criticize the project of sociology as an empirical enterprise. Then their own project of sociology is critically examined.
It turns out, however, that in spite of one basic difference there runs between these two systems a deep and striking parallelism. This parallelism is so close indeed that it makes possible the construction of a vocabulary which would transform characteristic propositions of Wittgenstein's ontology into Aristotelian ones, and conversely. To show in some detail the workings of that transformation will be the subject of this paper.
The Realist interpretation of 'War and Peace' - articulated by Martin Wight and Stanley Hoffmann - is based on Tolstoy's understanding of history as it is elaborated in his account of the Napoleonic invasion in the second epilogue of the book. There Tolstoy puts forward a mechanistic view of international relations which are assumed to be governed by inexorable laws of history determining human behaviour and limiting man's exercise of free will. However, Tolstoy's subjection of man to the workings of impenetrable laws of history in the second epilogue is at variance with a multiplicity of conscious moral choices that his three main characters - Nikolay Rostov, Andrey Bolkonsky and Pierre Bezukhov - make throughout the book. It is argued that the different treatment of the freedom vs. necessity problem in the fictional and historical narrative can only be understood contextually, i.e. from within Tolstoy' rejection of the Enlightenment tradition of scientific and moral inquiry.