Трансцендентное в современной философии: направления и методы
This paper deals with Jaakko Hintikka’s theory of perspective and public identification. There are some surprising interrelations between Hintikka’s approach and neuroscience (“two pathways” theory). In this paper I outline some questions to Hintikka’s theory and suggest answers for them.
This paper outlines the idea of transcendent as a source of totalitarian ideologies of the twentieth century. Totalitarian ideologies Totalitarian ideologies are considered in it as political religions in theories of Eric Voegelin (1901-1985) and Raymond Aron (1905-1983), to demonstrate the transcendent source of their legitimation
This article provides the comparative analysis of the two main interpretations of the Tractatus Logico-philosophicus, written by Ludwig Wittgenstein: the standard and the resolute reading. The author argues that both readings primarily focus on solving the Tractatus’ Nonsense paradox, i.e. they attempt to answer the question about how the Tractatus can declare its own senselessness. In my opinion, the resolute reading explains the Tractatus better, since it doesn’t build any frameworks that are alien to the Tractatus, unlike the standard reading, critics of which is main intension of the resolute reading. I think, it’s impossible to formalize the arguments of the Tractatus, and that’s why one should think over the Nonsense paradox and accept it, while not trying to solve it. In my opinion, Parmenides’ argument about non-being is a good illustration to this paradox.
This article presents two French interpretations of Anselm’s Ontological Argument. The first one was proposed by Alexandre Koyré (1892-1964) in his early book The Idea of God in the Philosophy of St. Anselm (1922). Koyré considers Anselm’s philosophy being the part of Neo-Platonist tradition along with Augustin, Pseudo-Dionisius and Eriugena. But he also found in Anselm’s argumentation a quasi-phenomenological recognition of the intentionality of the consciousness that guarantees the openness of thought to the transcendent reality. This idea was further developed by Belgian jesuit Paul Gilbert in his book dedicated to Proslogion of St. Anselm. He reads Anselm’s Argument in the vein of French reflexive philosophy and points out that the negation of the id quo maius cogitari nequit existence is at the same time the negation of the act of thought itself.
The research explores the analysis of the non-transcendence principle underlying the different ways to remove the transcendent dimension, actively applied in contemporary continental philosophy especially in postmodernism. It is demonstrated which difficulties in traditional metaphysics have contributed to rethinking of the transcendence to be radically different or radically external to the world of the immanent. The emphasis of the work done on the reading of Hegel and partially Husserl, whose philosophical approaches and concepts determines the key of those philosophical strategies that have been lately focused on the development non-transcendent ontology.
The paper deals with the Ontological Argument and focuses on the enigmatic Anselmian concept «majus» (within the expression «id quo majus cogitari neguit»). Four different explications of this concept are considered. The conclusion is that the most productive and non-trivial explication is based on two-dimensional approach to the possible worlds semantics. А formal reconstruction of Anselm's proof in terms of AML (modal logic with an actuality operator) is given.
It turns out, however, that in spite of one basic difference there runs between these two systems a deep and striking parallelism. This parallelism is so close indeed that it makes possible the construction of a vocabulary which would transform characteristic propositions of Wittgenstein's ontology into Aristotelian ones, and conversely. To show in some detail the workings of that transformation will be the subject of this paper.
In this article I consider ways of discussing conception of transcendence in philosophical anthropology. The theme of transcendence is organically linked with the question of searching foundations for ethical and with the problem of possibility of an embodiment of detected moral norms in certain acts. In this latter case the conception of ideal (embodiment of an idea) is very important for us. The aim of this work is to understand the principle inventions of philosophical anthropologists, in particular Max Scheler and Helmuth Plessner, in the conception of transcendence.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the conceptions of consciousness that are presented as alternatives to reflective theory of consciousness: the conception of non-egological non-reflective consciousness (J.-P. Sartre) and the conception of pre-reflective self-consciousness (the Heidelberg school, D. Zahavi). The author shows that the conceptions are self-contradictory because they use reflection as a method of discovering the consciousness of the type that is transcendent to reflection.
The research raises the issue of conceptual analyze of the transcendence. Nowadays this problem becomes pressing because of discussions about legitimacy of religion in the modern rationality. It is emphasized that a discourse about returning of transcendental intention makes philosophers to work out the new formal conceptions. These models must demonstrate the changes in transcendental realism in the history of philosophy. This article deals with the possibility of the linguistic definition of the transcendence, based on ideas of Wittgenstein and analytic philosophy of language.
E. Zalta and P. Oppenheimer have created non-modal reading of the Anselm’s argument about the existence of God, The Ontological Argument. The authors have deduced the existence of God from his being. For this purpose, the term "that than which none greater can be conceived" used as a definite description. Through the predicate logic with the descriptions and several special axioms Zalta and Oppenheimer have formalized Anselm’s argument and demonstrate that from a formal point of view, his arguments is quite correct. But if we use as a tool the Theory of abstract objects we obtain the ontological argument, consequence of which is fundamentally different from the conclusion that Anselm has made.
This paper discusses agent-causal theories of free will in contemporary analytic philosophy, which develop the notion of agent as a persistent endurable substance. It starts with general description of the specific challenges of the general libertarian position in the debates between compatibilism and incompatibilism. The main part of the article provides an overview of the most influential agent-causal theories of free will and discusses related criticism. In conclusion, it identifies key issues and future challenges for libertarians.