Подготовка учителя к сопровождению процесса гражданского становления школьника
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss how instructors could use autoethnography as a course assignment to help students understand their cultural identities and build their intercultural communication competences in higher education classroom. Autoethnography is a qualitative research method that helps people examine their relationship with a group or a culture. The chapter provides an overview of literature relevant to intercultural communication competences, social identity, and autoethnography and then describes the author's use of autoethnography in an undergraduate course “Social and Cultural Foundations of Education” taught at a large public university in the United States. In her class, the author uses this method to help students examine their cultural identity, or relationship with groups based on their religion, culture, nationality, ethnicity, or other groups relevant to the course.
The article analyzes modern trends of Russian patriotism, which are considered from the point of view of the global context of patriotic education, civic education and nation-building. The author cites the all-Russia polls, as well as the results of the sixth wave of World Value Survey (2010-2014). She also demonstrates the results of the empirical research conducted by the method of content analysis using ATLAS.ti. The research covers eight strategic documents of patriotic education of the United States, Singapore, China and Russia. Key findings from the study are as follows. (1) The abrupt nature of the Russian patriotism shows that external events play a major role in its formation rather than public policy. The consolidation of the Russian society is not realized through the cultivation of positive patriotic values, but on the basis of negative factors. Their influence can only lead to a blind, but not to the constructive patriotism. (2) Russian program documents demonstrate the emphasis on a militarist bias of patriotic education, and this is the evidence of a blurring legal and theoretical basis of formation of patriotism in Russia. Patriotic education cannot exist for its own sake. Also, it cannot only develop the emotional component of state identity. This prevents the formation of constructive patriotism and involves cultivating such qualities as unconditional love for the homeland, convinced devotion to public authorities, unquestioning positive evaluation of the government structures, and the rejection of critical evaluation, readiness to defend the state up to the sacrifice. (3) There is a need to harmonize the “official” definition of patriotism with the concepts of civic education and nation-building. Patriotism can be regarded as love of country, devotion to the state, which is expressed in the knowledge of the historical and contemporary achievements of the country, the free support of spiritual and moral values, the manifestation of citizenship based on the active participation in the activities of civil society, constructive criticism of the government and express their point view. Such definition of patriotism integrates emotional relationship of the citizen to the country, the state, civil and national identity. It emphasizes the importance of the traditions and values, and creates a construct of active and free of social behavior without infringing alternative values, traditions and attitudes that exist in the world.
The chapter describes how instructors can capitalize on student prior experiences and create opportunities for new experiences in the classroom to foster student learning in management education programs. The chapter provides an overview of research around experiential learning (Kolb, 1984; Kolb & Kolb, 2005), learning from experience or on-the-job learning by managers, and teaching techniques that have been shown to foster student learning in management undergraduate and graduate programs. The chapter focuses on experiences that could be created in-class or in the context of one course and does not discuss practices related to a program and curriculum design.
The use of digital resources in school education plays an important role in the modern world, especially in the context of distance learning. Despite this, the school remains quite a conservative social institute, where adoption of new technologies faces a number of external and internal barriers. Thus, there may be insufficient material and resource base of the school, lack of additional time and technical support for teachers, as well as personal characteristics of teachers, their internal attitudes and resistance to change, that deter the successful adoption of digital resources in the educational process. The aim of this research is to identify and describe the strategies for the adoption of digital resources in the educational process by Russian school teachers, and also to detect the determinants of differences in their choices of those strategies. The empirical basis of this study is a randomized controlled trial conducted by researchers of the International Laboratory for Evaluation of Practices and Innovations in Education for the Russian IT company Yandex in the 2018/2019 academic year with 347 Russian schools participated in the study. During the 25 weeks, the experimental group of 165 teachers from these schools was recommended to use the digital service named Yandex.Textbook, which provides individualized digital home tasks in Mathematics and Russian language with automated checking. We analyzed the average weekly number of home tasks given by every teacher to identify their strategies for using Yandex.Textbook. With the help of time series cluster analysis, there were identified three different strategies for using digital resources. The first one presents a situation where a teacher uses Yandex.Textbook from the very beginning with pauses during school holidays. The second strategy is typical for those teachers who join the experiment later and start with a bigger amount of home tasks than the first ones, to compensate for the lost time. The third strategy is usual for teachers who use Yandex.Textbook only once or twice, despite recommendations. Further analysis with the use of multinomial regression showed that relationship of teachers’ characteristics and their strategy choice. Those teachers who are more likely to choose the 2nd strategy (“delayed start”) tend to have a bigger working experience and a lower education level than the teachers that realized the 1st strategy. At the same time, there was no significant relationship between strategy choice and personal ICT and user experience. Besides, chances for choosing the 3rd strategy (“sporadic use”), as well as the 2nd one, are higher for teachers in schools where principals consider the lack of computers with the Internet connection as a significant obstacle to the use of new technologies. This research shows how the external and internal barriers of Russian school teachers determine the dynamics of digital resource adoption in the educational process. These results allow us to identify teachers who may need additional support for the further integration of digital resources. This is an important result for education policymakers and school principals who plan to introduce new digital learning resources into practice.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.