Региональное управление и проблема эффективности власти в России (XVIII – начало XXI). Сборник статей Всероссийской научной конференции с международным участием (Оренбург, 30 октября – 2 ноября 2012 года)
Russia, and the various contrasting political entities that have embraced it over the past two centuries, provides an excellent setting for studies of how political change can influence academic disciplines. Egyptology is no exception in this regard, and this paper will seek to demonstrate how in a Russian context this discipline went through a number of phases aligned with the shifting political and socio-economic landscapes. While illustrating how novel political phenomena could trigger academic evolutions, it will also show that certain key facets of Russian Egyptology have proved remarkably enduring, while some academic developments that one may at first sight attribute wholly to political influence may in fact have been brought about by other, at times purely accidental, factors.
This article is the first in historico-legal literature to deal with the phenomenon of Russian refugee assistance organization during World War I. This multicenter study is focused on legal and institutional factors of refugee assistance organization, on institutionalization of national refugee organizations in Moscow and Petersburg. Its academic novelty is manifested through usage of archival and published materials, their greater part being introduced into scientific use for the first time. It is established that the regulation of refugee assistance was based on three constituents: state regulatory acts, corporate enactments of social organizations, and public activities on refugee assistance organization. The results of the study are also of considerable practical importance. They can help solve contemporary migrant adaptation problems, overcome ethnic and religious extremism.
This article analyses Soviet roots of the official policy and ideology of the African National Congress (ANC) – the National Democratic Revolution. The article deals with the evolution of the Soviet theory of the national liberation movement, with the history of its adoption first by the South African Communist Party (SACP) and then by the ANC and with the way this theory has been playing itself out in South African politics after the ANC’s coming to power. It offers a historical perspective which helps to understand the ANC’s present policy and politics and the thinking of its leadership.
The article is based on documents from both the South African and Russian archives, interviews with participants of events, Russian contemporary publications and a wide range of other published material.
The paper discusses how was formed the managment institutions of the Soviet tank industry, from the first steps to creating an effective administration. In focus is the problem of interaction between institutions of industrial management with the state authorities and military administration. Examples of biographies of people, responsible for managing tank industry, shows how varied the Soviet administrative elite, and how these people influence the formation of the Soviet "administrative culture".
This article is devoted to the Digest of the Laws of the Russian Empire – an embodiment of the operative legal system in late imperial Russia. Even though the Digest contained the law in force, and thus should be studied as a crucial source on Russian (legal) history, its meaning has been often overlooked. The reason for that is a remarkable difference between the original texts of laws adopted by the legislator, and their published form in the Digest. This difference came from the necessary editing procedures when every new piece of legislation was included in the existing system of the Digest. This strange feature of legal procedure when two different versions of a particular law – the original one and the one codified in the Digest – both remained in force should be considered as a part of official autocratic legality in late imperial Russia. Even though it may seem inefficient and irrational, the practice of obligatory codification of laws in the Digest existed for a rather long time – from 1835 until 1917. My research aims to find possible explanations for the Digest’s prolonged existence in the context of political and legal culture of late imperial Russia. What did Russian ‘official legality’ actually mean on the levels of theory and action?
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.