The paper presents the results of the study of subjective qualities as a basis for effective development of schoolchildren's abilities in the learning process. The author proposes an approach to the interpretation of the concepts of a subject and subjectivity, outlines approaches to the development of particular models of subjectivity, determining the effectiveness of various activities. The paper presents the model of subjectivity, which is manifested in the development of students' abilities, as well as the results of its empirical testing. The given workmay be of interest both in theoretical and applied aspects. The results of the study are of high relevance to the educational systems aimed at maximum effective development of students, selection and further workwith gifted children.
This book develops an educational theory centered around the notion of relation. Alexander M. Sidorkin defines learning as the production of useless things and shows that problems of learning motivation are more institutional than individual or cultural. He then argues that contemporary mass schools are difficult to manage. The solution to the resulting authority crisis is not in the restoration of authority, but in the pedagogy of relation. The key to learning motivation is in what Sidorkin describes as «economy of relations,» a mechanism where personal relations between students and teachers are converted into relations involving curriculum. In order to remain a viable social institution, schools must become hybrid organizations that combine features of a regular school and a neighborhood club, giving teachers should have ample opportunity to build strong relations with and among students.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.