Межкультурные отношения на постсоветском пространстве
The monograph presents results of the studies of members of HSE International scientific-educational laboratory for socio-cultural research on the project of Russian Science Foundation "Empirical testing of multiculturalism in Russia in the context of international experience" (No. 15-18-00029). Empirical studies of intercultural relations in line with the three hypotheses proposed by J. Berry (the hypothesis of multiculturalism, contact, and integration) were conducted by the authors in Central Russia (including Moscow), North Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, Dagestan), and also in Latvia, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. The results of these studies have showed in general the applicability of these three hypotheses for the analysis of intercultural relations in the former Soviet Union and highlighted the important role of socio-cultural context and intercultural policy for harmonization of interethnic relations in different countries and regions. In conclusion, the authors proposed a number of practical recommendations based on the results of scientific research.
This chapter analyzes intercultural relations in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic via testing the three hypotheses of intercultural relations: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis and the contact hypothesis. Ethnic diversity, presence of titular and non-titular ethnic groups, ethnic and religious majority and minorities determine the complex nature of interethnic relations in the republic. The research is based on the theory of acculturation of J. Berry and uses the hypotheses and measures developed in the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. The sample consisted of Kabardians (N = 155), Balkars (N = 128) and Russians (N = 335) living in Kabardino-Balkaria; the total sample size was 618 respondents. Path analysis supported (fully or partially) all the hypotheses among Kabardians — the titular ethnic group forming the ethnic majority of the republic. The contact hypothesis was not supported among Balkars — the titular ethnic group forming the ethnic minority of the republic. The contact hypothesis and the integration hypothesis were not supported among Russians — ethnic minority group that formerly used to be a political elite in the region. The research results demonstrated the existence of problems in interethnic relations in the republic, acutely perceived by Russians and Balkars. The results are discussed from the perspective of socio-political context of interethnic relations in Kabardino-Bal karia.
In this chapter individual values are considered as person-based predictors of acculturation attitudes. This approach revealed a motivation that underlain a choice of different strategies of intercultural interactions among ethnic minority’ members. Representatives of two generations of Russian ethnic minority in Lithuania participated in the study. Older generation was represented by respondents who were born in the Soviet period. Younger generation was represented by respondents who were born after the collapse of the USSR. The sample consisted of 336 respondents aged from 15 to 84 years: 122 males and 214 females. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. The key findings of the study were as follows: positive relationship was found between Openness to Change values and integration; negative relationship was found between Self-Enhancement values and assimilation. These results were common among both generations of Russians in the context of Lithuania.
This chapter presents the results of testing the three hypotheses of intercultural relations in the group of Russian ethnic minority in Lithuania. Participants were 290 ethnic Russians aged from 15 to 84 years (mean age 27.3): 103 males (35.5%) and 187 females (64.5%). Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. The study showed that integration was the prevalent strategy among Russians. Multiculturalism hypothesis was not supported. The contact hypothesis was partially supported: positive relationships were found between intercultural contacts and integration strategy, between intercultural contacts and separation strategy; but relationship between intercultural contacts and ethnic tolerance was not found. The integration hypothesis was also supported only partially: integration strategy promoted higher self-esteem but did not relate to life satisfaction of Russians. The results are discussed from the perspective of the context of acculturation of Russians in Lithuania.
This chapter presents the results of the study devoted to mutual adaptation of migrants and Russian ethnic majority in the Central Federal district of Russia. Participants were migrants from Middle Asia (N = 227) and South Caucasus (N = 274), and Russians (N = 261). Using structural equation modeling we tested the three hypotheses of intercultural relations: multiculturalism hypothesis, integration hypothesis and contact hypothesis. The multiculturalism hypothesis was partially supported among all the three groups. The contact hypothesis was not supported among migrants from the South Caucasus and was partially supported among migrants from Middle Asia and Russian ethnic majority. Integration hypothesis was fully supported among migrants from South Caucasus and Russians, and partially supported among migrants from Middle Asia. The results obtained in different groups are compared with each other.
This study examines intercultural relations in the Republic of Dagestan (RD) in the North Caucasus, Russia. RD is the most multicultural and multilingual republic in the Russian Federation. The research used the hypotheses and measures developed in the MIRIPS project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Our goal was to test three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We also examined the role of a separation strategy in intercultural relations. The sample included members of the largest ethnic groups of RD: Avars (N = 100), Dargins (N = 116), Russians (N = 101) and members of other ethnic groups, such as Kumyks, Lezgins, Tabasarans, (N = 121). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic groups, and simultaneously for the whole sample. The results showed that perceived security promoted support for multicultural ideology, tolerance, and integration among the whole sample. The contact hypothesis was not supported: number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had no significant impact on tolerance and integration in the whole sample. Preference for integration promoted life satisfaction and self-esteem in the whole sample. We also found that the separation strategy was positively associated with life satisfaction among members of ethnic groups in RD.
This article examines intercultural relations in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). The research is based on the theory of acculturation of J. Berry and uses the hypotheses and measures developed in the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. The RNO-A is the most favorable place for the Russians living in the North Caucasus because attitudes toward the Russian minority in the RNO-A are not discriminatory. In this study we tested the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, the contact hypothesis and hypothesis of threat/discrimination. The sample included members of the ethnic majority — Ossetians (N = 340), and members of the ethnic minority — Russians (N = 344). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic minority and for the ethnic majority, and the models were compared with each other. The results show that perceived security among Russians (the ethnic minority) as well as among Ossetians (the ethnic majority) promoted support for a multicultural ideology, tolerance, and mutual integration. The number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had a positive and significant impact on a preference for integration among both Ossetians and Russians. An integration strategy and the expectation of integration promoted self-esteem in both groups. In addition, the high level of perceived threat among Ossetians and perceived discrimination among Russians predicted their preference for assimilation. In general, the results of the study confirmed the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis and the contact hypothesis.
This chapter investigates the role of intercultural and intracultural friendly contacts in the intercultural relations of different ethnic groups in the Republic of Dagestan - the most ethnically diverse region of the Russian Federation. The study examined the association of intercultural and intracultural friendly contacts of the Dagestan ethnic groups representatives with integration and separation strategies. The sample consisted of Avars (N = 104), Dargins (N = 121), Kumyks (N = 45) and Russians (N = 101) living in Dagestan. Path analysis showed that the contact hypothesis was partially supported among groups having rather high status in the region (Avars and Dargins) or in the country (Russians); but was not supported among the group of Kumyks, perceiving themselves as a fairly disadvantaged group in Dagestan in comparison with Avars and Dargins. Positive relationship of intracultural contacts with integration and separation strategies was found among the unconditional ethnic minorities of the region (Dargins and Kumyk); whereas ethnic majorities of the region (Avars) or of the country (Russians) demonstrated only positive relation between intracultural contacts and separation strategy. The results of the research are discussed from the perspective of socio-cultural context of interethnic relations in modern Dagestan.