ПСИХОЛОГИЯ МЕЖГРУППОВЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ. Учебник для бакалавриата и специалитета
In recent years there has been a growing interest in cognition within sociology and other social sciences. Within sociology this interest cuts across various topical subfields, including culture, social psychology, religion, race, and identity. Scholars within the new subfield of cognitive sociology, also referred to as the sociology of culture and cognition, are contributing to a rapidly developing body of work on how mental and social phenomena are interrelated and often interdependent. In The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology, Wayne H. Brekhus and Gabe Igantow have gathered some of the most influential scholars working in cognitive sociology to present an accessible introduction to key research areas in a diverse field. While classical sociological and newer interdisciplinary approaches have been covered separately by scholars in the past, this volume alternatively presents a broad range of cognitive sociological perspectives. The contributors discuss a range of approaches for theorizing and analyzing the "social mind," including macro-cultural approaches, interactionist approaches, and research that draws on Pierre Bourdieu's major concepts. Each chapter further investigates a variety of cognitive processes within these three approaches, such as attention and inattention, perception, automatic and deliberate cognition, cognition and social action, stereotypes, categorization, classification, judgment, symbolic boundaries, meaning-making, metaphor, embodied cognition, morality and religion, identity construction, time sequencing, and memory. A comprehensive look at cognitive sociology's main contributions and the central debates within the field, the Handbook will serve as a primary resource for social researchers, faculty, and students interested in how cognitive sociology can contribute to research within their substantive areas of focus.
The authors argue for the relevance of the collective mindfulness organizational and psychological determination research. The influence of organizational and psychological factors on cognitive processes of collective mindfulness is analyzed through conducting cross-cultural research on two samples of IT teams’ specialists: Italian (N=61 (48%); 16% female, 84% male; age: M=34,5; SD=4,59) and Russian (N=65 (52%); 27% female, 73% male; age: M=35,5; SD=5,03). Multiple linear regression analysis results have shown: the same set of organizational and psychological factors influence the cognitive processes of collective mindfulness in different ways depending on the cultural affiliation of respondents. Furthermore, there were found out the grounds to assume the dependence of the quality of the project product on the level of collective mindfulness via conducting content analysis of 10 interviews (4 managers and 6 employees; distribution by gender: 50% male and 50% female; work experience: M=5,2; SD=3,7).
Purpose. The scientific novelty of this work lies in its emphasis on the theoretical and empirical study of the organizational and socio-psychological determination of collective mindfulness, which is traditionally given the role of a reference point in the study of management practices that allow teams and organizations to operate in an almost “error-free” mode in conditions of uncertainty. Methodology. Tools for studying the level of collective mindfulness and its socio-psychological and organizational determinants within teams and enterprises are being proposed. Overall, 402 managers (201 men and 201 women) aged 23 to 45 years participated in the survey: 144 managers were from consulting sphere (39 men and 105 women), whereas 88 people from the information technology sphere (65 men and 23 women) and 170 people from the oil and gas industry (97 men and 73 women). Findings. The processes of collective mindfulness are determined by the degree of organizational collectivism within the organizational cultures of the enterprises studied (r vary from .529 to .627 at p < .001) and are determined by the support of management and colleagues (r vary from .522 to .613 for p < .001 and p < .01). It should be noted that despite the respondents’ high scores on the scales of “collective mindfulness”, the subjects scored low scores on the scales of “team reflexivity”, which may indicate the unwillingness of employees to participate in reflexive practices, despite the presence of the necessary organizational conditions. Values of the results. This paper should also function as an invite for further research along this line. To become a really valuable tool tough, further improvements in the methodology would be required. This could be an interesting field for psychologists and sociologists alike.
Purpose. The article presents an analysis of approaches to the definition and operationalization of the concept of group resilience in organizations. The relevance of the study is due to the reduction in the life cycle of companies in the market, the need to take into account the long-term consequences of group decisions and the growing responsibility of teams in the organization to large social groups, the need to study the structure and factors of group resilience as a socio-psychological phenomenon that allows teams to remain effective in a risk society. Methodology. The tools for studying small groups resilience and its socio-psychological and organizational factors are being analyzed. Findings. An actual state of the scientific problem is described. Different concepts of small groups and organizational resilience are compared. The directions for further research are proposed. Implications for practice. The analysis carried out could serve as a basis for development of a valid instrument. Value of the results. The insights into the scientific problem of small group resilience within the organizations should still be provided in the further research. At the present moment, there is a shortage of the valid psychometric tools.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.