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## Procedia Computer Science

Special issue of Elsevier’s Procedia Computer Science, which consists of the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Knowledge - Based and Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems (KES2016) which was organised by KES International and held on September 5th to 7th, 2016 in York, United Kingdom. Celebrating 20 years of KES conferences, KES2016 was the 20th event in a series of broad-spectrum intelligent systems conferences first held in Adelaide, Australia in 1997. The main aim of this KES conference series is to provide an internationally respected forum for the dissemination of research results and the discussion of issues relating to the theory, technologies and applications of intelligent information and knowledge-based systems. This year, this truly international conference attracted a substantial number of researchers and practitioners from all over the world who submitted their papers to five general tracks and 28 special sessions on specific topics. The papers highlight the new trends and challenge of intelligent and knowledge-based systems. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least two members of the International Program Committee and International Reviewer Board. Out of a large number of submissions, more than 200 high-quality papers were accepted for oral presentation and publication in Procedia Computer Science, submitted for indexing in CPCi (ISI conferences), Engineering Index, and Scopus.

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The CCIS series is devoted to the publication of proceedings of computer science conferences. Its aim is to efficiently disseminate original research results in informatics in printed and electronic form. While the focus is on publication of peer-reviewed full papers presenting mature work, inclusion of reviewed short papers reporting on work in progress is welcome, too. Besides globally relevant meetings with internationally representative program committees guaranteeing a strict peer-reviewing and paper selection process, conferences run by societies or of high regional or national relevance are also considered for publication.

The Formal Grammar conference series (FG) provides a forum for the presentation of new and original research on formal grammar, mathematical linguistics, and the application of formal and mathematical methods to the study of natural language. Themes of interest include, but are not limited to: – Formal and computational phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics – Model-theoretic and proof-theoretic methods in linguistics – Logical aspects of linguistic structure – Constraint-based and resource-sensitive approaches to grammar – Learnability of formal grammar – Integration of stochastic and symbolic models of grammar – Foundational, methodological, and architectural issues in grammar and linguistics – Mathematical foundations of statistical approaches to linguistic analysis Previous FG meetings were held in Barcelona (1995), Prague (1996), Aix-en-Provence (1997), Saarbrücken (1998), Utrecht (1999), Helsinki (2001), Trento (2002), Vienna (2003), Nancy (2004), Edinburgh (2005), Malaga (2006), Dublin (2007), Hamburg (2008), Bordeaux (2009), Copenhagen (2010), Ljubljana (2011), Opole (2012), Düsseldorf (2013), Tübingen (2014), Barcelona (2015), Bolzano-Bozen (2016), and Toulouse (2017). FG 2018, the 23rd conference on Formal Grammar, was held in Sofia, Bulgaria, during August 11–12, 2018. The conference consisted in a special session, dedicated to the memory of Richard T. Oehrle, who passed away in 2018, and seven contributed papers selected from 11 submissions. The present volume includes the contributed papers. We would like to thank the people who made the 23rd FG conference possible: the invited speakers, the members of the Program Committee, and the organizers of ESSLLI 2018, with which the conference was colocated. August 2018 Annie Foret Gerg Kobele Sylvain Pogodalla

Abstract

Logical frameworks allow the specification of deductive systems using the same logical machinery. Linear logical frameworks have been successfully used for the specification of a number of computational, logics and proof systems. Its success relies on the fact that formulas can be distinguished as linear, which behave intuitively as resources, and unbounded, which behave intuitionistically. Commutative subexponentials enhance the expressiveness of linear logic frameworks by allowing the distinction of multiple contexts. These contexts may behave as multisets of formulas or sets of formulas. Motivated by applications in distributed systems and in type-logical grammar, we propose a linear logical framework containing both commutative and non-commutative subexponentials. Non-commutative subexponentials can be used to specify contexts which behave as lists, not multisets, of formulas. In addition, motivated by our applications in type-logical grammar, where the weakenening rule is disallowed, we investigate the proof theory of formulas that can only contract, but not weaken. In fact, our contraction is non-local. We demonstrate that under some conditions such formulas may be treated as unbounded formulas, which behave intuitionistically.

Heaps are well-studied fundamental data structures, having myriads of applications, both theoretical and practical. We consider the problem of designing a heap with an “optimal” extract-min operation. Assuming an arbitrary linear ordering of keys, a heap with n elements typically takes O(log n) time to extract the minimum. Extracting all elements faster is impossible as this would violate the Ω (nlog n) bound for comparison-based sorting. It is known, however, that is takes only O(n+ klog k) time to sort just k smallest elements out of n given, which prompts that there might be a faster heap, whose extract-min performance depends on the number of elements extracted so far. In this paper we show that this is indeed the case. We present a version of heap that performs insert in O(1) time and takes only O(log ∗ n+ log k) time to carry out the k-th extraction (where log ∗ denotes the iterated logarithm). All the above bounds are worst-case. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.

Let G be a semisimple algebraic group whose decomposition into the product of simple components does not contain simple groups of type A, and P⊆G be a parabolic subgroup. Extending the results of Popov [7], we enumerate all triples (G, P, n) such that (a) there exists an open G-orbit on the multiple flag variety G/P × G/P × . . . × G/P (n factors), (b) the number of G-orbits on the multiple flag variety is finite.

I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables