Лицом к морю. Памяти Людмилы Богословской
The book celebrates the life and legacy, academic, public, and personal of Lyudmila S. Bogoslovskaya (1937-2015), Russian biologist and specialist in Naitive cultures and seascapes of Chukotka. Her academic colleagues, friends, and partners in northern communities joined forces for a commemorative publication.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
The book celebrates the life and legacy, academic, public, and personal, of Lyudmila S. Bogoslovskaya (1937-2015), Russian biologist and specialist in Native cultures and seascapes of Chukotka. Yer academic colleagues, friends, and partners in nothern communities joined forces for a commemorative publication.
The article discusses the themes of ethnic stereotypes and lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the North and the non-indigenous peoples. Indigenous people identify with their ethnic group and prevailing positive evaluation of his perceptions about himself. Indigenous peoples believe that representatives of other ethnic groups assess their less positive, and in fact, the representatives of non-indigenous peoples evaluate them worse. Students from the number of indigenous people consider the most important parameters for the evaluation of their lifestyle (factors of evaluations): "unattractiveness - attractiveness," "peaceable - hostility", "melancholy - sanguine". Students from the number of non-indigenous people consider the most important parameters for the evaluation of their lifestyle: "welfare - non-welfare", "hostility - peaceable", "sanguine - melancholy". The testees of both samples evaluate their lifestyle more positively at the conscious, reflexive level (universal), than unconscious, uncontrolled level (implicit factor structure of evaluations). The testees of both samples evaluated their lifestyle completely different at the unconscious, non-regulated level (factorial structure of evaluations), indigenous people have more introverted, non-indigenous people have more extroverted.
The development of the Arctic zone of Russia has been declared one of the priority directions of Russia's development in the coming years. To discuss the problems of development and search for a modern model of state administration in the Arctic territories, forums are regularly held where all parties interested in the development of the Arctic come together. At the end of 2018, two forums were traditionally held in St. Petersburg: the VI International Arctic Legal Forum "Conservation and Sustainable Development of the Arctic: Legal Aspects" initiated by the administration of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District and the VIII International Forum "The Arctic: Present and Future" held by the Interregional Public Organization "Association of polar explorers". The most discussed issues were the legislative regulation of the development of the Arctic, since the lack of full-fledged legislation has become a brake on the development of the Arctic zone. Considerable attention was paid to the development of the Northern Sea Route, the creation of conditions for the population in the Arctic zone, the development of technology and the digital economy, the preservation of the traditional way of life and economic activities of the indigenous peoples of the North. The article presents the most significant conclusions and recommendations on the issues discussed.
The Russian Far North is immensely rich in resources, both energy and other resources, and is also one of the least developed regions of Russia. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the region. It examines resource issues and the related environmental problems, considers the Arctic and the problems of sea routes, maritime boundaries and military build-up, assesses economic development, and considers the ethnic peoples of the region and also cultural and artistic subjects. Overall, the book provides a rich appraisal of how the region is likely to develop in future.
Article analyses problems of formation of economic system oriented towards sustainable socio-economic development of the economy of “High North”. Author emphasizes existing approach based upon “economy of scale” does not fits to the modern tasks of the economic development in harmony with preservation of the unique Nature and, more over traditional life style and economic activity of endogenous people of the North. Due to author opinion, solution is available in way of integration of modern technology (including Internet of things), extension of rights of local communities and municipalities in natural resources management (based upon inclusive principles) and also formation of spatially interconnected value chains as of goods as of services. Economy od Arctic could not be analyzed and valued as spatially closed system. Economic interests of Arctic areas (first of all of municipalities and communities) needs to be presented at all stages of value creation and value accumulation. Basis for this lies in a term “social value”. Only this basis could create and develop appropriate socio-economic systems oriented towards harmonization of common and specific features of the Arctic economy.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.