Особенности употребления синонимов в японском языке: учебно-методическое пособие для студентов факультета востоковедения, изучающих японский язык
The article focuses on some views on the notions of valency and actant, major reasons for change of valency of English verbs with incorporated actants and semantic and syntactic valency of verbs with incorporated actants.
The article covers different variants of language interaction in the modern world – from code-switching to borrowings – resulting from the language contacts (bilingual and multilingual) and reflecting sociocultural changes during the globalization period. Forms and mechanisms for interaction of the Russian and German languages and the formation of sociocultural identity in a multicultural society are analyzed through the example of sociolinguistic situation of the Russian speaking diaspora in Germany.
An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.