Rationality in Action: Intentions, Interpretations and Interactions
The proceedings of the conference "Rationality in Action: Intentions, Interpretations and Interactions". The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.
The aim of this paper is to systematize the variety of rationality in reasoning. What is gained, then, is a goal-rationality framework for the logical modelling of ‘belief biases’ in reasoning.
The concept «transdisciplinarity» genetically goes back to the «interdisciplinarity» designating the important changes that occur in relations between science and culture. «Interdis- ciplinarity» is the major characteristic of a science on the transi- tion from «classical» to «the nonclassical» status. «Transdiscipli- narity» characterizes the science at a «postnonclassical» stage of its development. Both concepts connect the philosophy of science with the philosophy of culture.
In this article I am offering some critical comments on two of the most important programs of modern social and political philosophy: transcendental pragmatics and communication theory. These considerations will cover two main problems: justification of rational prerequisites of activities, that would be common and universal for all of humanity and universal, and transparent communication, that is common for all representatives of intersubjective commonality. The first problem is the difficulty of removing the fundamental contradiction between "ones" and "someone else's", and the second is the difficulty of simulation of communication unity, that despite its universality, may serve as different packages of values.
How body and mind are interconnected within action? This paper examines this question from the phenomenological point of view. First, we will describe some basic phenomenological attitudes to externality and internality. These attitudes were formulated by the founder of the phenomenology Edmund Husserl. Second, we present Husserl’s ideas on the embodiment. Third, we examine the development of Husserl’s position by French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
The purpose of the present paper is to describe and evaluate recent Bayesian developments concerning the theory of confirmation and the theory of scientific reasoning as a whole. It is argued that the Bayesian approach in contemporary philosophy of science has, as its main consequence, a serious revision of the conception of scientific rationality.
Mordecai Kaplan is one of the most significant modern Jewish thinkers. Western scholars put him in a par with such famous and respected philosophers as Martin Buber, Frank Rozenzweig, amd Hermann Cohen. Kaplan's philosophy became a theological basis of the Recostructionist movement in Judaism, which attracts about 2% of American Jews. In his works Kaplan combines Jewish religious thought with the ideas of American pragmatists, process theologians, Spinosa and Bergson. Although the variety of the intellectual links between Kaplan's philosophy and other famous philosophical teachings is really great, the influence of Pragmatism seems to be crucial. This paper studies Kaplan's ideas in the aspect of rationality and action, wich is the cornerstone of his thought and, presumably, the best example showing his strong ties with American Pragmatism
This paper deals with two philosophical approaches to the problem of practice and its interpretation. It is demonstrated that there is a significant difference between L. Wittgenstein’s and H. Putnam’s theories of practice. According to Wittgenstein, an actor should not interpret the practice and reveal some implied sense for correct rule following. But Putnam argues that without interpretation the practice cannot provide the reference of our language’s terms to the reality. This article demonstrates that this difference in Wittgenstein’s and Putnam’s theories of practice is connected with their philosophical understanding of science and possibility of scientific cognition.
The aim of this talk is to propose an approach for unifying gricean pragmatics and formal speech acts theory. The main idea is that the both pragmatics theories share the common view on the rational structure of the communication. It is possible to use the principle of rationality (speaker and hearer trying to use linguistic recourses in the most optimal way) as a tool for unifying formal speech act theory and gricean theory of conversational implicatures
What is the rational action or what makes the action rational? In this paper, I will address this question. First, I will analyze the definitions from the popular Meriam-Webster dictionary in order to construe some basic operating framework concerning the rationality of action. Second, I will sketch the basic idea of rational thinking as criteria-dependent and selective. Third, I will discuss the relation between thought and action. After that, I will criticize the causal theory of action and the general idea that thoughts are causes of action. Fourth, I will sketch my account of (the) rational action. Finally, I will address some objections.
This paper develops in a practical direction the ontological concept of interest as groundless ground and is related to my previous discussion of Heidegger’s treatise "Vom Wesen des Grundes". It presents an attempt to uncover the ontological premises of modernity and analyze its projective character in terms of fundamental ontology. In trying to answer a special question «Why participate in project?», it moves towards an ontology of funding.
The paper examines the interpretation of action in Bartholomaeus Keckermann's applied logic. It defends the thesis that Keckermann makes important and innovative distinctions: the description of a particular action does not focus on its moral evaluation, but on its circumstances, antecedents, and consequences. The reading of such a text containing descriptions, narrations, or interpretations of actions, however, must take the moral dimension of the actions described into account. Keckermann's distinction may have important implications for Keckermann’s understanding of history and the pre-history of hermeneutics in general.