Конфликтология ХХI века: пути и средства укрепления мира.Материалы II Санкт-Петербургского международного конгресса конфликтоллогов. Санкт-Петербург, 3-4 октября 2014. -Спб., 2014. - 440 с.
The article considers the preliminary results of the research comparing self assessment and real choices behavior strategies in difficult and conflict situations.
The article discusses the role of third-party strategies in resolving interpersonal conflicts, by which we mean the participants choosing to cooperate. In the experiment, three strategies of third-party behaviour were modelled — cooperative, neutral and aggressive. The study involved 156 subjects, 95 girls and 61 boys, all 10-11 grade high school students. 18 trained research assistants played the role of the third party. The study was conducted in two series corresponding to the two experimental conditions — in a group and in dyads due to the differences in the сonflict parties’ behaviour. The essence of the experiment was to introduce a conflict situation by creating competition between the parties. This waы done as part of a game through a simulation of struggle for a limited resource, which in our study was the highest grade and depended on the solution of biological crossword. Results of the study showed that the third-party strategy did have an impact on the process of resolving interpersonal conflict. It has been proved that there are differences in the effectiveness of third-party behaviour depending on the conditions of the conflict – in a group or in a dyad. The results showed that the aggressive strategy of third party encouraged participants to cooperate in a dyad within a social group. The results can be used to create guidelines for teachers, often acting as a third party in the resolution of conflicts, and for the adolescents themselves.
Cataclysms of the twentieth century enabled to speak about the cultural paradigm shift: the New Middle Ages began to crystallize. In this paper the rethinking process (mainly in economic but also philosophical discourse) of the meaning of labour is sketched. The importance of noneconomic sense of labour (which can be understood as Service) has been realized even in some branches of political economy. Self-centred homo economicus is regarded as secondary to unselfish homo faber. Different reasons of standing for this ideal are outlined.
A dramatic change in media coverage of the wars in Chechnya from sharp criticism in 1995 to almost unanimous support in 1999 has at least one consequence and several causes. Both wars were presented by TV news as a series of disconnected actions, which can be easily visualised: separate battles and cases of people’s suffering. This helped to stop the first war, but the disappearing of the visualised actions in the midwar period lead to silencing the Chechen problem. Meanwhile, politicians learned from their mistakes and formed a consistent policy towards the media (which they lacked before). Furthermore, NTV channel, the major source of alternative coverage of the first war, has found itself much more dependent on various external forces after it voluntarily supported the incumbent in the presidential elections in 1996. One of the NTV executives has formulated what can be called the major result of its struggle for independent coverage: With our own hands we have created a monstrous system that gonna eat us.
Coping behaviour plays a great role in solving a difficult, conflict situation. Hardiness cand be considered as a personality resource of coping behaviour in a conflict. In our research we use the following methods: S. Maddi’s questionnaire (hardiness) and A. Heim’s technique (coping strategies). 227 people, 108 men and 119 women, participated in the research. The correlation analysis has shown that strongly pronounced hardiness is connected with the choice of adaptive coping strategies, and feebly pronounced hardiness is a predictor of the choice of non-adaptive emotional strategies. Hardiness and its components - commitment and control, have a positive correlation with adaptive and relatively adaptive variants of cognitive, emotional and behavioural strategies and a negative correlation with the choice of non-adaptive strategies. Challenge has a negative correlation with adaptive behavioural strategies. In the conclusion, we show that studying the influence of hardiness on a person’s choice of coping strategies in conflict situations can help to prevent similar conflicts in the future. As such, the findings of our research can be considered as a good prognostic and diagnostic tool.
The authors discuss why conflicts emerge and how they are settled in different African regions and countries. Prospects for their peaceful resolution are studied. Basing on case studies, the authors propose theoretical approaches to conflicts.
The article deals with the relationship of business and government through the various aspects of the conflict interaction. The author analyses border state of relationship between business and power, factors and possible solutions of conflict situations. The author makes an assumption that development of social relations in general can lead to transformation of inefficient system of relationships between business and power.