Философия. Язык. Культура
This paper is concerned with the critique of metaphysics as onto-theology in J.-L. Marion’s early writings “The Idol and distance” (1977) and “Double Idolatry: A Study of The Ontological Difference and Thinking of God” (1979). The notion of onto-theology refers both to Heidegger’s essay “The Onto-theo-logical Construction of Metaphysics” (1957) and to certain ideas of scholasticism. Thus, the paper is aimed to reveal the significance of both scholasticism and Heidegger’s philosophy for Marion’s critique of metaphysics. The paper focuses on two main points of this critique: first, the problem of the univocity of attributes, second, that of “regional” character of metaphysical concepts of God.
This paper deals with the problem of language of Theatre of Cruelty. Theatre of Cruelty is a theatrical project and metaphysical revolution proposed by Antonin Artaud in 1929-1936. It was not merely a suggestion of a new theater, but an attempt to bring back the global meaning to the world lost in the process of separation from culture. Artaud is trying to build a new language as a way of changing the world within the theater. This article discusses the semantics and syntax of Theatre of Cruelty, as an independent language, and presents the analysis of the semantics of the language through the analysis proposed by Gilles Deleuze.
Autonomism is a relatively new post-Marxist school, which is still developing fruitfully, providing us with critical account of the modern society. Although autonomists ground on Marxist «axiomatics», they are quite successful in elaboration of their own social theory and terminology. In my article I demonstrate the major concepts, coined by autonomists, which became later the basis for autonomists’ theory, and explain the connection between these notions and significant social phenomena of the contemporary epoch, as well as with the traditional categories of social and political philosophy. Introducing these concepts, autonomists not only set some conventional glossary, but also join the dispute with notable social and political philosophers of the past such as Thomas Hobbes, thus showing historicity of these thinkers’ philosophical views as well and with the help of such deep comparisons, clarifying the key aspects of modernity.
The history of Russian thought in the Soviet period is a story with missing chapters. One of this missing chapters is the history of the reception of Bakhtin’s ideas in the Soviet period. The paper analyzes the philosophy of V.N. Turbin (1927—1993), as a case of the history of the reception of M.M. Bakhtin’s ideas.
In the article, the author analyses the conception of people as a political body (corpus politicum) described in the text of the “Siete Partidas” of Alphonse X the Wise, king of Castile and Leon (1252–1284). In the frame of this theory, the people are considered as a whole body and the king as its soul, heart and head. The multitude can become the people only being united by the love to the king. The author criticizes the hypothesis according to which the principal sources of Alphonse's political theory were the works of St.Thomas Aquinas and John of Salisbury and proposed the other version. According to his version, such sources were, first of all, the texts of the tradition of political Augustinism, i.e., the “De civitate Dei” of St.Augustine and the “Sententiarum Libri tres” of Isidor of Seville.
This paper deals with "Sleeping Beauty" paradox and logico-ontological aspects of rational credences and decision-making in general. We maintain the view that “de se” propositional attitudes can not be reduced to “de re and “de dicto”. The natural consequence of this is the rejection of naive referentialism in the interpretation of credences in favor of epistemic 2D semantics.
The article is devoted to the semantics of the Kantian concept "transcendental." To do this, we distinguish two semantic center of this term: methodological and epistemic as such, – and give a more de- tailed description of the second one, in which the "transcendental", in contrast to the empirical research of things of our experience, is understood as [transcendental] research of "things in general" or as research of a/the transcendental thing/object.
At the end of the homily IX In Hexaemeron St. Basil the Great promises to continue his Genesis exegesis with an account of man’s creation (Hex. 9. 6. 90−91: ἐν τίνι μὲν οὖν ἔχει τὸ κατ' εἰκόνα Θεοῦ ὁ ἄνθρωπος, καὶ πῶς μεταλαμβάνει τοῦ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν). However, he never got to it (the two homilies De hominis opificio were probably written by another person). Nevertheless, a close analysis of the homily In illud: attende tibi ipsi shows that in his account of man’s creation Basil’s is very much endebted to the Alexandrian tradition which adjusted Plato’s Timaeus to the interpretation of the biblical text. A special attention will be paid to the term ζῷον θεόπλαστον.
Talisman practices of the Renaissance are usually considered as a subject of history of medicine or history of science as opposed to philosophy as a coherent and systematic discipline. There are a lot of talisman descriptions with various astral influences in the treatise of the Florentine philosopher Marsilio Ficino's Three books on life (1489). According to Neoplatonic anthropology and ontology, talismans could be understood as an expanded figurative evidence of the Universe hierarchy fully appreciated only by sage, which is characterized as a possessor of certain aptitude for the understanding of this hierarchy.
In the present paper we continue our analysis of some problems related to different ontologies. We focus on possible worlds semantics (PWS) as a framework for analyzing basic theological questions as they are put by contemporary analytic theologians (e.g. A. Plantinga). The article upholds some ideas that are key for successful research in the field of contemporary analytic theology, namely: 1) the need to clarify the ontology before investigating its particalar issues; 2) the importance of distinguishing between modalities de dicto and de re; 3) recognition of untranslatability between different ontologies as a starting point of contemporary research for "scholastic" questions.
This paper considers the development of Mally’s theory and its role in the development of Meinongian theory itself. Therefore we face here one of major problems, namely a question, whether or not Mally’s theory is Meinongian. It appears that the answer on this question depends on the interpretation of the main thesis of Meinong’s theory.
The author deals with Helmuth Plessner's anthropological and biological theory of laughing and crying. The theory implies a philosophical study of specific forms of human expressivity where the philosopher introduces his view on phenomenology and hermeneutics, which is known as hermeneutics of nature. Thus, bodily being is at the center of phenomenological description and hermeneutical explanation in Plessner's philosophy: here the immediate emotional experience of the world on a bodily level finds its expression in the theory of laughing and crying, a study of forms of specific human expressivity.
The significance of rational dialogue between believers and secular citizens, which has been offered by J. Habermas, becomes unquestioned because of increase of religion’s activeness in the public sphere. But “postmetaphysical” solution of this problem has been criticized by B. Trainor, D. Uzlaner and other researchers. The paper deals with the strategies of philosophizing, which let to interpret the metaphysics as the discovery of some structures of understanding. This way can avoid some quasi-scientific ambitions of postsecular philosophy as well as the ethical and epistemological relativism.
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Time as a philosophical ontological category turns into thinking method in Arendt’s texts. The basis of this "transformation" is a redefining the Augustine’s terminology of time. This article focuses on the identification of the heritage Augustine thought about the concept of time in the philosophy of H. Arendt. It examines the mechanisms for the Augustinian time’s terminology in her papers - namely, the concepts of «hodiernus», «natalis» and the understanding of the time through the categories of "past", "future" and "present".
The article is dedicated to the correlation of materialism and relativism in the book ''Knowledge and Social Imagery'', the manifesto of Edinburgh school in sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) by D. Bloor. In the first part of the text author points out theoretical origins of Bloor's relativisim and examines principles of impartiality and symmetry in order to clarify their role in “strong programme'' in SSK. The analysis of the ''truth'' concept and the problematization of materialistic attitude are used to describe the general features of Bloor's methodology. In the second part, short review of the discussion between Bloor and B. Latour demonstrates that difficulties concerning relativism and materialism are connected with the introduction of the specific concept of causality.
The article outlines the necessity of just war theory adaptation to modern international relations challenges. New spheres of fighting appeared and non-state actors, such as terrorists, insurgents and economical structures, joined politics, so just war theory has to revise jus ad bellum и jus in bello principles. As it seems to the author that the main line of just war theory development consists in answering the question of adaptation normative war conception to the new wars.
The article reconstructs the concept of sovereignty by François Guizot in its connection with intellectual and political context of the Restauration Period (1814-1830). This allows me to illustrate philosopical sources of French liberalism, highlight the connection between liberal ideology and democratic tradition, as well as to clarify how the concept of sovereignty was reflected in politics.
The article is an analysis of the political and legal views of the German jurist and political thinker of the first half of the twentieth century, Carl Schmitt. The author reveals that it uses the concept of «sovereign», «sovereignty», «State» and «political theology» and explains their use in the context of political theory Schmitt