Следование правилу: рассуждение, разум, рациональность
Empedocles’ theory of knowledge is a quite difficult problem, as the fragments and doxography give us rather contradictory data. On the one hand, according to Aristotle and Theophrastus, the Sicilian philosopher did not make any distinction between thinking and sense perception and he considered them to be mechanically determined. On the other hand, the true knowledge is the result of revelation from Muse. In order to reconstruct Empedocles’ theory of knowledge it is necessary to examine the fragments of his poems in their historical context. This approach apparently seems to be able to give an explanation of the originality of Empedocles’ thought.
In this paper I examine William Ockham`s notion of concept or mental term which is a core element of mental language in W. Ockham`s account. According to the late Ockham`s treatises, concept is both a sign and an act of understanding. This identification causes several difficulties in the analysis of his ideas. First is the general difficulty of his ‘mental language’ conception. How can mental language have semantic and syntactic properties? And, thus, how can a composite mental term be both an act and a proposition? The other ambiguous question is the question about the reason for his final version of the definition of a concept. In this paper I am going to consider some Ockham`s thoughts about the identification of a concept and an act of understanding by reference to his Commentary on Aristotle`s treatise ‘De Interpretatione’. I begin with the short description of the very idea of mental language and the relations between terms in written, spoken and mental language and real individual things.
In the report the following approach to a problem of “methodological pluralism” in psychology is offered: in the transformation of psychological phenomena, rather than creating a ladder of “explanation levels” (on which it is possible to climb or to descend to such “fundamentals”, but which cause the explanations to go beyond the framework of psychology), instead, have a topological system, where “levels” or types of explanation are mutual “transcriptions”, ways to read their own senses in different languages. This approach is analogy to methodological abduction (cf: Ch. Pears) – to form and select hypotheses of sense connections between different types of explanations in psychology and their subsequent verification. His goal is the organic unity of different explanatory possibilities of psychology. Experimental refutation of any explanatory hypothesis affects the whole, or almost the whole, complex of different scientific-psychological explanations, which cannot remain indifferent to such rebuttal. A new importance is given to questions about the nature of refutations, empirical basis, about the meaning of “increasing of empirical content” (I. Lakatos) or “competition between various explananses” in the psychology.
There are two problem areas associated with modern studies of philosophy of mind focusing on identification and convergence of human and machine intelligence. One problem is machine simulation of meaning and the other – machine simulation of sense. In the present study the analysis of the stated problems is carried out based on the concepts of structural and post-structural linguistics almost entirely ignored by philosophy of mind.
This article discusses to what extent, according to Suárez, man is able to obtain a “perfect” knowledge. Suárez asks not only about the possibility of “perfect” knowledge and its “mechanism” but also about the relevant subject of this type of consciousness. The article summarizes the main points of Suárez’ treatise “Commentary on Aristotle’ s De anima”.
In Scheler's philosophy, the idea of a spiritual being which he calls the person is not the same as in classical Greek or Christian personalist understanding. Though this idea represents the intellect as a "partial form of spirit", according to Scheler, "personal dimensions of spirit are limited to a finite, human sphere of existence", and besides, psychovital sphere of human is no longer determined by the spirit as the former is much more powerful energetically than the latter.
The paper deals with the “Frege’s puzzle” in its connection with the problem of the objects of credence. Our main thesis is that naive semantic referentialism should not be transferred to probability theory, especially to Bayesian epistemology. We focus on the recent anti-referentialist argument proposed by David Chalmers and argue that his two-dimensional (2D) approach is the most effective tool for the study of these issues. The "Sleeping Beauty" paradox is a good example of the problems that can be addressed with 2D semantics.
The principle that logic provides norms for reasoning is a traditional basis for demarcating the bounds of logic as a discipline. Nowadays, the role of logic in ‘everyday reasoning’ has been challenged. The main aim of this study is to show the advantages of shifting focus towards dynamic model of normativity.
The article looks at the possible role of measurement in a quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating an apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation) and the properties of the microcosm.
The search for the Russian philosophy of its own way of understanding “Self” have identified and detected in the presented concepts. They imply that the philosophy of the Silver Age sought to recapture part of the "territory" of the irrational and to extend the concept of the rational by reviewing the nature and assessment of a number of noetic schemes.
The paper deals with M. Heidegger’s treatise On the essence of ground (Vom Wesen des Grundes, 1929) which analyzes the essence of principium rationis sufficientis from the perspective of fundamental ontology. The problem of ground discussed in the treatise is related to the following conceptual structure: ontological difference-transcendence-freedom. In my paper, I focus on the question of transcendence which is described as “the basic structure of subjectivity”. In order to clarify Heidegger’s main point regarding transcendence, I introduce the term “interest” and explain how transcendence as the finite human freedom can be the origin of “grounding”.
This article analyzes the ideas of Piotr Lavrov, Russian positivist of 19th century who reinterpreted a value of the meaning and significance of scientific evidence and who substantiated a scientific character of "subjective" method used in historical learning.
This article aims to disclose two different meanings of the concept of metaphysics as it is used in the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer. According to the first one, metaphysics is the discipline that can unravel the riddle of the world and show what is hidden behind the world of appearance, thus explaining what Kantian thing in itself is. On the opposite, according to the second one, metaphysics is the discipline that is related to description of the structure of experience as a whole as it reveals itself in some "inner experience", thus only claiming to investigate the structure of consciousness and not the thing in itself.
The main goal of the article is to systematize the conceptual resources of contemporary metaphor studies. In the first part, the list of main theoretical shifts in the field is presented. Then, in the second part, some standard difficulties that many scholars encounter are divided into three groups: 1) problems connected with the applied conception of language; 2) problems with the conceptualization of metaphor; 3) metamethodological paradoxes. It is argued that every methodologist should decide how to deal with these problems in order to clarify his/her own way of basic metaphors using.
The paper examines the problem of the status of communicative rules. Paul Grice noted that all conversations follow a set of rules (principle of cooperation, maxims of quality, quantity, relevance and manner), which people use to express themselves. We consider some argument against the principle of cooperation. It is argued that the principle of rationality should be considered as the main pragmatic rule.
This paper examines the problem of rational free action in indeterministic world. First, I examine the concept of rationality and specify the common meaning of rationality in philosophy of action. Then I show how indeterminism can destroy this type of rationality using roll-back version of luck argument. Finally, I argue that the whole problem results from mixing the concepts of causality and rationality in causal theory of action and provide some examples to show that causal determination has nothing to do with rationality of action.
This article is concerned with the criteria of normalization in Soviet pathopsychology viewed on the example of categorization. L. Wittgenstein and the founders of the prototype theory have shown that categories are not made up on the basis of common properties and may have no clearly defined boundaries. But criteria in pathopsychology are grounded on the system of rigid rules of class logic. We are going to examine the process of thought diagnostics in a new perspective, i. e. by applying to the family resemblance conception and а new look at the problem of rule following.