Развитие дополнительного образования в условиях снижения нагрузки учащихся и совершенствования системы оплаты труда педагогов
The "cost disease" was recorded in U.S. higher education and other countries. In the USA The Delta Cost Project conducts continuous monitoring of university costs and students education costs starting from1987 to 2010. A. Rubinstein confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of the 'cost disease' for cultural organizations in Russia. In this paper we answer the question whether there is a 'cost disease' in the system of higher education in Russia.
The article uses results of the project "Transforming education economics in the context of expanding resources" within the framework of fundamental research program of Higher School of Economics.
We investigate the main question of whether higher education institutions are able to increase their performance due to mergers, takeovers, or organizational restructuring. The problem of measuring performance when there are several “output” and “input” indicators can currently be solved by recourse to a proven data analysis method (data envelopment analysis, DEA). Two models are presented to assess the educational and research performance of universities. The DEA model, which is input orientated and has constant returns to scale, was used to perform calculations. To conduct a comparative analysis of groups of universities that are at various stages of the restructuring process, the study authors proposed several classifications of universities:
by number of consolidated and/or eliminated organizational units,
by period when restructuring was completed,
by type of restructuring mechanism, and
on the basis of whether technical colleges have been joined to the university in question.
We used nonparametric statistical methods for comparing averages to test the proposed hypotheses. Our study sample consisted of 132 universities whose parent agency is the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The authors did not discover that the performance of the universities deteriorated as a result of the restructuring process. It turned out that universities that actively participate in restructuring processes in fact increased their performance level relative to other universities.
The study did not reveal that institutions that are currently in the process of being merged with or taken over by other institutions experience a temporary decline and subsequent restoration of their performance level. The performed analysis did not confirm the hypothesis that universities that absorbed technical colleges experienced a drop in their performance level. The results of the study unanimously show that by 2015 universities made progress in bridging the gap with the performance level of their leading competitors compared to 2010. The authors are aware that the verification of the accuracy of the proposed arguments requires a more detailed study of the universities. Because many countries have already accumulated a large amount of experience in how to restructure institutions of higher education, the results of the present study of the restructuring of Russian universities make it possible to draw comparisons as well as to use the developed theoretical concepts to explain and predict the possible consequences of using various restructuring mechanisms. The study is based on the widely accepted method of data envelopment analysis. This article represents the first time that this method has been used to benchmark university performance over time.
The book contains abstracts of papers presented at the Third Saburov reading. Most of them develop ideas and topics specifically related to the life and works of Eugene F. Saburov (1946-2009) - statesman, reformer, a prominent organizer of education, writer and poet. Like the preceding Saburov readings, in a statement reflected the problems of innovation and reform in the Russian society. A prominent place is given to the results and prospects of the reform of education are analyzed its regional aspects, financial and economic mechanisms.
The goal of our study was to compare the working conditions, salary size, and professional outcomes of teachers at schools that switched to the competitive performance-based (so-called ‘effective’) contract in comparison with teachers at schools that did not switch to this employment framework. The study focused on teachers at 83 vocational secondary schools (VSS) that are subordinate to the Ministry of Education of Moscow Region. We conducted an opinion poll to obtain direct information from teachers. We sent questionnaires consisting of 31 questions to 253 teachers. Of the respondents, 105 were included in the experimental group and 148 were placed in the control group. The results of our study show that teachers who work in organizations that have switched to the effective contract model have a higher subjective assessment of their own financial situation, greater expectations regarding their future income, greater confidence about the compensation plan, and a better opinion of the prestige of the teaching profession than teachers at schools that have not adopted an effective contract. The only parameter that cannot be interpreted as an unambiguously positive result is an increase in the frequency of teacher performance assessments at schools that have adopted an effective contract. It was also possible to establish the existence of a moderate relationship between the individual nature of the employment contract and the level of trust that teachers have in their compensation plan. In addition, we established another moderate relationship between informedness and the level of trust that teachers place in their compensation plan. Thus, we can recommend implementing the performance-based contract model at all VSS in the Moscow Region, because it has a positive impact on the immaterial motivation and financial position of teachers. By conducting additional measures to increase teachers’ informedness about effective contracts, we can increase their level of trust in them.
Factor structure of expected graduate’s wage is considered in the paper. The analysis of eight regression estimates for 2007–2009 and 2012–2016 of Russian University students’ wage expectations demonstrates consistency of estimates of all coefficients but regional dummy and wage of working students. The dynamics of expected graduates’ wage and average nominal wage suggests that the former is much more exposed to influence of economic cycles than the latter.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.