The paper examines the Latin textbook “Institutiones Metaphysicae”(1821) by Irodion Yakovlevich Vetrinskii, professor at St. Petersburg Theological academy: the “Institutiones”, almost entirely ignored by philosophical historiography so far, turned out to be a crucial source for the reconstruction of the early reception and spread of Kantianism in Russia. The textbook is examined on the basis of a historico-philosophical methodology. On the one hand – in connection with the first part of the textbook, “Prolegomena to Metaphysics” – an analysis of Vetrinskii’s conception of Metaphysics is provided; on the other hand, the paper deals with Vetrinskii’s philosophical sources – and namely: J.G. Daries’s “Elementa Mataphysices”, F.S. Karpe’s «Institutiones philosophiae dogmaticae», G.I. Wenzel “Elementa metaphysices et anthropologiae”. Especially the latter meant a great deal to Vetrinskii, being at the same time the closest to Kantian philosophy.
The medieval Christian Arabic historian (13th c. A.D.) Ǧirǧis al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd is well known not only in Middle Eastern Christian and traditional Muslim historiography, but also in Western scholarship since the 17th century. Despite this, however, the first volume of his most important work – The Blessed Compendium (al-Maǧmūʿ al-mubārak) – still remains unpublished. The present article discusses the section of al-Makīn’s history devoted to Alexander the Great, which contains laments of the philosophers over Alexander. The study includes a critical edition of the Arabic text of the laments, based on four manuscripts, a Russian translation, and a commentary.
The author analyses the problem of truth as it is presented in the interpretations of Martin Heidegger and Alexandre Koyré, covering Plato’s Republic. Heidegger reads it primarily as a poetic myth of concealment and disclosure, revealing the intellection of Being. The space of political is a space of a historical manifestation and at the same time of the concealment of truth. The history of manifestation of truth is also a history of hiddenness and oblivion. Thereafter the untrue, being a privative mode of the true, no more opposes it; the true and the untrue do not make up a hierarchical pair. Koyré gives a completely different treatment of the Republic, reading it as a dramatical piece, forcing the reader to take sides. The truth is self-referring and placed at the high end of the hierarchy of values ladder, whereas the untrue (as distinct from the plain error) is always a deception, designed to disrupt the horizontal bonds between the citizens that constitute the political space as such. While for Heidegger the paradigmatic example of Dasein relation to Being is a poet who is sort of privy to God, Koyré keeps in place the hierarchical deference of the untrue world of the religious and mythopoetical to the true world of science. The author of the article demonstrates the inseparable link between the aesthetic visions and the political conceptions entertained by Koyré and Heidegger.
The article makes an attempt to trace the link between, on the one hand, historicism in the approach, and, on the other, its capacity to theorize a «positive» aspect of subjectiv(iz)ation, conceived as resistant in contrast with subjection. With this object in mind, we refer to two authors concerned with both topics, who are rather close to each other but at the same time sufficiently independent to be able to assure a variability of approaches to these topics – to Michel Foucault and to Jacques Rancière. Given that each of them provide us with different kinds of reflection on these topics on the different stages of their œuvre, as a result, we obtain three sharp transitions: from the politics of Foucault to the politics of Rancière, from the politics of Rancière to his aesthetics, from the aesthetics of Rancière to the aesthetics of Foucault. The contrast between them rather persuasively demonstrates the existence of a negative correlation between the historicism and the topic of subjectiv(iz)ations- as-resistance, even in the works of such authors as Foucault and Rancière.
Thomas Kuhn has noted that Alexandre Koyré accomplished the local «scientific revolution» by changing the character of the historiography of science. However he should be merited not only by the novelty of approach to the scientific revolution of the 17th century but also by his capacity to mediate between the continental philosophy of the beginning of the 20th century which treated the scientific revolution as a philosophical and the community of professional historians of science which at that time looked for the grounds of consolidation. Koyré was convinced that science is unconceivable without philosophy, since it presupposes an ontological interpretation of its object. This conviction allowed him to present a new approach to the history of science, and focus on the method of conceptual analysis aiming at the search of the philosophical presuppositions of scientific theories. Thereby Koyre related the history of science to the history of ideas and brought it closer to hermeneutics.
Mağmū‘ uṣūl ad-dīn wa-masmū‘ maḥṣūl al-yaqīn (“Summa of the foundations of religion and what has been heard of reliable knowledge”) – a comprehensive treatise of Mu’taman Ibn al-‘Assāl, a Coptic author of the 13th century, contains a fragment of “the treatise by Ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib, the Nestorian, with a list of opinions of people on the Unity and their arguments”. The present article is a source study that discusses the using of the works of Ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib by the medieval Copts. The research is followed by a Russian translation of the fragment edited by Ibn al-‘Assāl.
S.N. Trubetzkoy (1862–1905) – the outstanding Russian thinker and public figure. The author of the original concept of “concrete idealism”, he is a staunch follower of the philosophical ideas of V.S. Solov’ev. Trubetskoy is one of the best representatives of the national intellectual elite. In his works he argues values of European modernity, the spiritual and political freedom of the individual and society. According to the author, philosophical ideas and political beliefs of Trubetskoy are single source. In the heart of the philosophical system of “concrete idealism” is specific logocentric ontology of freedom. The liberal concept of political freedom grows out of the Christian intuition of personal immortality. Trubetskoy defends independent significance of Russian religious metaphysics, seeing in the Eastern Christian tradition of philosophizing the potential for ontological enrichment of the rationalist thought in Modern Era. Thus, in philosophy, he shows the way of synthesis for Russian and European thought, and in social life he protects the path of peaceful transformation of the political system and development of Russian society.
This study is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of the phenomenological approach in analytical philosophy of mind. Today, phenomenology in the analytical philosophy of mind is increasingly strengthening its position. This is due to the problem of limited naturalistic approach to the study of consciousness. It is shown that unlike the strategies of continental tradition, analytical philosophy of mind by default uses the language and apparatus of naturalistic philosophy. The latter is understood as the ontology of natural objects and the motive of their primacy. The article analyzes some means of analytical philosophy of mind, which are positioned as phenomenological, but do not always preserve the authenticity of the phenomenological methodology. It is shown that the peculiarities of the phenomenological approach in the analytical philosophy of mind are connected with certain drawbacks of traditional phenomenology, namely, the gap with the language of science and the lack of sufficient opportunities for dialogue between scientists and philosophers. The phenomenological approach in analytical philosophy of, on the contrary, offers a number of tools to demonstrate the peculiarities of consciousness as an “object of research” on the territory of science itself. The article shows some of these tools and gives their analysis in comparison with the traditional Husserl phenomenology. The article resumes that the consequence of scientific convertibility is the preservation of the residual naturalist material (dictionary of science) within the analytical versions of the phenomenology. It does not allow the authentically apply the traditional phenomenological approaches to the study of consciousness in analytical philosophy. At the same time, it is shown that further development of the traditions of analytical philosophy and phenomenology can develop the productive dialogue.
In his «Five memoirs on public instruction» the French politician and philosopher of the Age of Revolution, Marquis Nicolas de Condorcet formulated the basic ideas of his five-levels educational model. This article focuses on its impact on school reform implemented by Jules Ferry in the 1880s. It argues that it was Condorcet, who developed the republican model of public education, which proved to be pioneering for post-revolutionary era and which retains its value nowadays. Condorcet’s plan was to create an educational system in which every citizen would have an opportunity to receive education – from primary to higher levels – free of charge. The one and only criterion for selection to pass to the new educational level should be the natural abilities and talents of a given person. To what extent these ambitious ideas of Condorcet were implemented by his followers? And what should be the role of the state in education of a new man?