The paper examines the Latin textbook “Institutiones Metaphysicae”(1821) by Irodion Yakovlevich Vetrinskii, professor at St. Petersburg Theological academy: the “Institutiones”, almost entirely ignored by philosophical historiography so far, turned out to be a crucial source for the reconstruction of the early reception and spread of Kantianism in Russia. The textbook is examined on the basis of a historico-philosophical methodology. On the one hand – in connection with the first part of the textbook, “Prolegomena to Metaphysics” – an analysis of Vetrinskii’s conception of Metaphysics is provided; on the other hand, the paper deals with Vetrinskii’s philosophical sources – and namely: J.G. Daries’s “Elementa Mataphysices”, F.S. Karpe’s «Institutiones philosophiae dogmaticae», G.I. Wenzel “Elementa metaphysices et anthropologiae”. Especially the latter meant a great deal to Vetrinskii, being at the same time the closest to Kantian philosophy.
The medieval Christian Arabic historian (13th c. A.D.) Ǧirǧis al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd is well known not only in Middle Eastern Christian and traditional Muslim historiography, but also in Western scholarship since the 17th century. Despite this, however, the first volume of his most important work – The Blessed Compendium (al-Maǧmūʿ al-mubārak) – still remains unpublished. The present article discusses the section of al-Makīn’s history devoted to Alexander the Great, which contains laments of the philosophers over Alexander. The study includes a critical edition of the Arabic text of the laments, based on four manuscripts, a Russian translation, and a commentary.
The author analyses the problem of truth as it is presented in the interpretations of Martin Heidegger and Alexandre Koyré, covering Plato’s Republic. Heidegger reads it primarily as a poetic myth of concealment and disclosure, revealing the intellection of Being. The space of political is a space of a historical manifestation and at the same time of the concealment of truth. The history of manifestation of truth is also a history of hiddenness and oblivion. Thereafter the untrue, being a privative mode of the true, no more opposes it; the true and the untrue do not make up a hierarchical pair. Koyré gives a completely different treatment of the Republic, reading it as a dramatical piece, forcing the reader to take sides. The truth is self-referring and placed at the high end of the hierarchy of values ladder, whereas the untrue (as distinct from the plain error) is always a deception, designed to disrupt the horizontal bonds between the citizens that constitute the political space as such. While for Heidegger the paradigmatic example of Dasein relation to Being is a poet who is sort of privy to God, Koyré keeps in place the hierarchical deference of the untrue world of the religious and mythopoetical to the true world of science. The author of the article demonstrates the inseparable link between the aesthetic visions and the political conceptions entertained by Koyré and Heidegger.
The article makes an attempt to trace the link between, on the one hand, historicism in the approach, and, on the other, its capacity to theorize a «positive» aspect of subjectiv(iz)ation, conceived as resistant in contrast with subjection. With this object in mind, we refer to two authors concerned with both topics, who are rather close to each other but at the same time sufficiently independent to be able to assure a variability of approaches to these topics – to Michel Foucault and to Jacques Rancière. Given that each of them provide us with different kinds of reflection on these topics on the different stages of their œuvre, as a result, we obtain three sharp transitions: from the politics of Foucault to the politics of Rancière, from the politics of Rancière to his aesthetics, from the aesthetics of Rancière to the aesthetics of Foucault. The contrast between them rather persuasively demonstrates the existence of a negative correlation between the historicism and the topic of subjectiv(iz)ations- as-resistance, even in the works of such authors as Foucault and Rancière.
Thе paper analyzes the articles of George Fedotov published during 1918‒1930 years, giving a presentation
of philosophical and historical concept, its genesis and formation peculiarities; the author
makes the attempt to trace scientific interest transformation path of Fedotov from historian to
the political publicist and philosopher of history. The paper deals with the path of the philosopher,
who appeared to be among Russian intellectuals who gone “from materialism to idealism”, and then
to religious thought; the author explores the works of native and foreign researchers of Fedotov.
This paper also discusses the views of George Fedotov concerning the mission of Russia and its
place in historical process. The paper raises the question about opportunity to consider intellectual
evolution of George Fedotov in historical and philosophical context expanding traditional biographical
approach in frames of the existing discourse on his work.
The article makes an attempt to the theoretical reconstruction of the figure of the Spanish thinker Xavier Zubiri (1898‒1983) as an original historian of philosophy on the basis of key works published both during the author’s lifetime and still out of print to give an idea of the thinker's distinc - tive view on development of all European philosophy. With this object in mind, we refer to the works published both during the life of the author, and going out of print to this day. Zubiri examined almost all the main topics of classical philosophy: matter and essence, evolution and the issue of free will, the history and problem of God. This great philosophical synthesis, we only need to understand and apply new regional knowledge.
Xavier Zubiri Apalategui, history of philosophy, Spanish philosophy, modern philosophy, history of ideas, horizons of philosophy, time, temporality, freedom of thought, intellectual history
G. Orwell once called himself “anarchist tory”, the collocation “anthropological mistake” belongs to British theologian J. Milbank, characterizing so liberal thought. These expressions are used today by two French philosophers, Jean-Claude Michea and Alain de Benoist. Though they came from opposing political camps, both are ready to define themselves “populists” and “conservative anarchists”. Their common enemy is contemporary liberalism. This article is a description of this polemics, especially with liberal anthropology. Their difference with many critics of political or economic liberalism lies in their belief that liberalism is a totality, and the core of all the aspects of this doctrine (economy, law, politics) is represented by the vision of man in liberal philosophy, which have a long history. This genealogy of liberalism, proposed by French thinkers, is the main theme of the article.
This article discusses critical arguments against the Hegelian philosophy of two thinkers of the existential direction - Lev Shestov and Seren Kierkegaard. So, Shestov builds criticism of Hegel on the traditional principle - in the German philosopher he sees the final of the disastrous modern European rationalism, the final victory of "philosophy" over faith. Kierkegaard embeds Hegel’s criticism into his original theory about the stages of human existence, which with various additions was developed throughout his work.
Thomas Kuhn has noted that Alexandre Koyré accomplished the local «scientific revolution» by changing the character of the historiography of science. However he should be merited not only by the novelty of approach to the scientific revolution of the 17th century but also by his capacity to mediate between the continental philosophy of the beginning of the 20th century which treated the scientific revolution as a philosophical and the community of professional historians of science which at that time looked for the grounds of consolidation. Koyré was convinced that science is unconceivable without philosophy, since it presupposes an ontological interpretation of its object. This conviction allowed him to present a new approach to the history of science, and focus on the method of conceptual analysis aiming at the search of the philosophical presuppositions of scientific theories. Thereby Koyre related the history of science to the history of ideas and brought it closer to hermeneutics.
The article focuses on the concept of Gustav Landauer's mystical anarchism. Author examines this anarchistic project in the connection to Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy. Claims that such ideas of Nietzsche's thought as eternal return and chaos play an important role in Landauer's anarchism. Furthermore, Gustav Landauer's concepts compares to G. Chulkov's ideas, who was Russian ideologist of mystical anarchism. Concludes that contemporary post-anarchists use Landauer's project to set boundaries of own ideology, which shows the relevance of Landauer's ideas till nowadays.
Mağmū‘ uṣūl ad-dīn wa-masmū‘ maḥṣūl al-yaqīn (“Summa of the foundations of religion and what has been heard of reliable knowledge”) – a comprehensive treatise of Mu’taman Ibn al-‘Assāl, a Coptic author of the 13th century, contains a fragment of “the treatise by Ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib, the Nestorian, with a list of opinions of people on the Unity and their arguments”. The present article is a source study that discusses the using of the works of Ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib by the medieval Copts. The research is followed by a Russian translation of the fragment edited by Ibn al-‘Assāl.
S.N. Trubetzkoy (1862–1905) – the outstanding Russian thinker and public figure. The author of the original concept of “concrete idealism”, he is a staunch follower of the philosophical ideas of V.S. Solov’ev. Trubetskoy is one of the best representatives of the national intellectual elite. In his works he argues values of European modernity, the spiritual and political freedom of the individual and society. According to the author, philosophical ideas and political beliefs of Trubetskoy are single source. In the heart of the philosophical system of “concrete idealism” is specific logocentric ontology of freedom. The liberal concept of political freedom grows out of the Christian intuition of personal immortality. Trubetskoy defends independent significance of Russian religious metaphysics, seeing in the Eastern Christian tradition of philosophizing the potential for ontological enrichment of the rationalist thought in Modern Era. Thus, in philosophy, he shows the way of synthesis for Russian and European thought, and in social life he protects the path of peaceful transformation of the political system and development of Russian society.
This study is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of the phenomenological approach in analytical philosophy of mind. Today, phenomenology in the analytical philosophy of mind is increasingly strengthening its position. This is due to the problem of limited naturalistic approach to the study of consciousness. It is shown that unlike the strategies of continental tradition, analytical philosophy of mind by default uses the language and apparatus of naturalistic philosophy. The latter is understood as the ontology of natural objects and the motive of their primacy. The article analyzes some means of analytical philosophy of mind, which are positioned as phenomenological, but do not always preserve the authenticity of the phenomenological methodology. It is shown that the peculiarities of the phenomenological approach in the analytical philosophy of mind are connected with certain drawbacks of traditional phenomenology, namely, the gap with the language of science and the lack of sufficient opportunities for dialogue between scientists and philosophers. The phenomenological approach in analytical philosophy of, on the contrary, offers a number of tools to demonstrate the peculiarities of consciousness as an “object of research” on the territory of science itself. The article shows some of these tools and gives their analysis in comparison with the traditional Husserl phenomenology. The article resumes that the consequence of scientific convertibility is the preservation of the residual naturalist material (dictionary of science) within the analytical versions of the phenomenology. It does not allow the authentically apply the traditional phenomenological approaches to the study of consciousness in analytical philosophy. At the same time, it is shown that further development of the traditions of analytical philosophy and phenomenology can develop the productive dialogue.