Динамика среднего класса в современной России
A period of qualitative changes in Russia has led to the transformation of many social aspects, including the social structure. Unsurprisingly, its specific features and certain social groups and strata are of particular interest at the moment. Both the scientific community and the general public are traditionally interested in the social entity of middle class. The term “middle class”, however, does not have a universal definition. Its meaning has been changing along with the social development and social structure transformations, depending on the historical context of a society. Moreover, several conceptually different approaches to identifying the middle class were emerging separately (due to the fact that middle class analysis was based on different goals and objectives that required different methodologies). In Russia, there is ongoing theoretical debate over the necessary and sufficient conditions for classifying an individual or a household as middle-class. Arguments for existence of the middle class in the country are quite often completely different as a result of diverse approaches and respective criteria, as well as the chosen thresholds, for identifying the sought-for middle class. Differences in the methodology of middle class identification lead to a considerable spread in the estimates of its share, from 2-3% to at least half of the population. Chapter presents different approaches to middle class definition, brief history of middle class studies in Russia and main results concerning specifics of Russian middle class from different research studies.
The chapter examines the size, composition and characteristics of the middle class in contemporary Russia
The article, which is the second part of a block of two (the first article was published in the previous issue of the journal), presents an analysis of some of the challenges that Russian social policy currently face, based on the data from nationwide surveys. However, the first article was focused on systemic challenges, while in this article the subject of analysis is a few selective challenges affecting specific spheres of life in Russian society. Based on the empirical data of the Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS, it is shown that one of the key challenges is the need to develop new framework for interactions between employers and employees; it is noted that the asymmetry of these relations has sharply increased during the last two economic crises. The situation with the public perception of the access to necessary medical care and its quality is analyzed; it is shown that these problems also become the important challenges for the state social policy. The challenges associated with decrease in investments in their own human potential and human potential of their children by the population, as well as housing deprivation of the population, the formation of a new underclass in rural areas, etc., are also analyzed. It is noted that further successful and sustainable development of Russia requires development of an adequate response not only to these, but also to many other challenges.
This handbook's contributing autors are leading sociologists in the four countries. They fill the gap in existing literature and examine specifically the changes in each society from the perspective of social stratifications.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.