Отношение превосходства между объектами и нетранзитивность их предпочтений человеком
The paper looks into the contemporary state of the problem of decision-making and preference of some alternatives over others, discussing intransitivity of relations of superiority: one object is superior to another in a certain aspect, while the second is superior to the third and the third is superior to the first (A>B, B>C, C>A). The authors analyze two broad groups of theories and empirical studies reflecting opposite views on the nature of the relations and rationality of intransitivity of relations of superiority. The authors argue that understanding of intransitivity of superiority relations is no less important line of cognitive development than understanding of transitivity; they should be studied as complementary subjects. Thus it is necessary to study individual differences in cognitive sets with regard to transitivity/intransitivity of superiority, as well as individual characteristics of solving problems of that kind.
The paper describes the principle of the EU decision-making process as a unique mechanism of the European integration. The latter is of fundamental importance for the overall European Union structure functioning. Author reviews main achievements recently made by EU in the area of development and improvement of the EU decision-making mechanism. The EU decision-making process and its different structural elements can be applied to a range of fields such as economy and policy, science and education, and even to the everyday communication interpersonal practices. The paper reveals the main procedures and stages of the EU policy-making process aimed to meet interests of different countries with a different political weight. Focusing on the main functions and responsibilities of the European Council and Parliament and European Commission author illustrates his thoughts and conclusions with a variety of examples of policy-making process across European Union.
In a situation of doubts in decision-making process it can appear polyphony of internal voices. Each of voices motivates the person to make a concrete choice and, frequently, even proves an offered variant. On the basis of V. Frankl's concept of conscience we offer two methodical steps helping to find an authentic position. As the first step verbalization of internal voices with especial attention to nuances to their intonation is offered. Intonations of a voice of conscience which are distinguishable among emotional dialects of internal polyphony are discussed. As the second step the person is offered to feel and estimate degree of affinity of each of voices to own deep Self.
In my article, I address the factors which favor using a verb as labile (both transitive and intransitive, with no formal change required).
Haspelmath (1993) proposes that the key feature which conditions a way of marking (in)transitivity of verbs in the transitive / intransitive verb pair is the spontaneity parameter.
However, the statistical analysis of Haspelmath’s data shows that for labile / ambitransitive verb the main parameter is the lexical semantic class of the verb, not the degree of spontaneity. This lets us discover a more general principle: phenomena which are not purely grammatical, but rather lexico-grammatical (as lability) depend on lexical features, not on generalized grammatical or semantic parameters.
This book is meant to be a graduate or undergraduate textbook and partly a monograph on the subject. The book summarizes the many years researches by the authors in Theory of Dynamical Systems.
This book is the first comprehensive study of the Vedic present formations with the suffix ‑ya‑ (‘‑ya-presents’ for short), including both present passives with the accented suffix ‑yá‑ and non-passive -ya-presents with the accent on the root (class IV in the Indian tradition). It offers a complete survey of all ‑ya-presents attested in the Vedic corpus. The main issue in the spotlight of this monograph is the relationship between form (accent placement, diathesis) and function (passive/non-passive) in the system of the -ya-presents – one of the most solidly attested present classes in Sanskrit. One of the aims of the present study is to corroborate the systematic correlation between accent placement and the passive/non-passive distinction: passives bear the accent on the suffix, while non-passives have the accent on the root. The book also focuses on the position of the passive within the system of voices and valency-changing categories in Old Indo-Aryan.
The concept of “power of will” is associated with a person's ability to overcome internal and external obstacles to implementation of the decision. But where the will takes power, the energy to overcome the obstacles? To increase the “strength” of the will in a collision with obstacles and overcome them, in accordance with the ideas of modern existential analysis, we offer techniques that can be used in the practice of psychological counseling.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.