Alcoholism as a cause of regression in learning and in pro-social behavior
Alexandrov Yu.I., Svarnik O.Ye., Znamenskaya I.I., Arutiunova K.R., Kolbeneva M.G., Krylov A.K., Bulava A.N.
Despite a long history of the notion of regression, its manifestations and mechanisms are still poorly researched, specific experimental studies are rare, points of view conflict. A study was conducted to discover dynamics of subjective experience and brain activity lying at the foundation of phenomena described as regression and observed in seemingly heterogeneous phenomena, such as stress, illness, violent emotions, alcoholic intoxication. The paper discusses the notion of regression from different angles, including the systemic evolutionary approach, and analyzes its potential brain and neuroenetic mechanisms. It has been experimentally proved that a high degree of alcoholic intoxication causes regression brought about by reverse de-differentiation: a relative increase of representation of lowly differentiated systems in actual experience.In experimental situations of learning in animals lowered activation of neurons of the first (drinking) skill was observed in the process of development of the second (eating) skill. In order to discover effects of alcohol on the general pattern of moral judgements the authors analyzed dynamics of the index of moral acceptance of the death of one for the sake of many. Complexity of behavior is simplified under alcohol and individual differences in pro-social behavior become less expressed. Findings demonstrate similarities in assessments of socially meaningful actions under alcohol, which, the authors believe, points to the effect of alcohol as “de-differentiator” causing regression. The effects may be linked to the general mechanism of reversible de-differentiation which determines repression of a number of systems (and, consequently, of activity of a number of neurons) in the most differentiated “complex” systems. This simplification may be linked to accelerated learning and also to the fact that organization of behavior becomes more uniform.
The paper considers the process of formation of vocal therapy as an integral part of humanity. It includes a historical overview of the development of vocal practices in different psychotherapeutic contexts (person-centered expressive therapy, voice movement therapy, therapeutic songwriting). It also examines two concepts of singing: impressive, having as its main objective the certain impressions on the audience, "public singing", based on musical education and vocal performing skills, and expressive, focusing on the expression of human himself, his experiences and subjective states "community singing". Therapeutic vocalizations are the means of self-expression and self-inquiry. The authors focus – person-centered versions of psychotherapy practice (free associative singing, vocal improvisation, authentic singing). These practices allow realizing authentic vocalizations of the client or his authentic voice (the voice of his inner Self). According to the person-centered approach, the personal attitudes of therapist (congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy) as necessary and sufficient conditions for positive personal change are implemented not only in client-centered psychotherapy, but in any other situation of communication, the purpose of which is human development. From the point of view of the authors these conditions are created in the practice of authentic vocalizations. Authentic vocalizations of the client are considered as insonations of his congruent (undistorted) experiences. Using a three-part model of congruency experiences, the authors classifies the possible manifestations of the subjective experience of the client, identifies congruent experience and the six types of incongruent experiences. Congruent experience is defined as expressed undistorted experience. According to the assumption of the authors the congruent experiences are represented in the practice of authentic vocalizations. If the inauthentic vocalizations of the client are the insonations of his incongruent experiences, and thus form the voice of his personality or outer Self, the authentic vocalizations can be seen as insonifications of his congruent (undistorted) experiences, as the voice of his essence or inner Self. The psychological study of authentic vocalizations is an important area of empirical investigations of ultimate foundations of humanity.