Sociological perspective for studying career in developing society: integrative theoretical approach
Sociological research in career has been limited in contemporary social science. However sociological career analysis may have crucial importance for understanding social structure and mobility processes in modern society. Critical analysis of the two leading directions in contemporary sociological research in career (“career fields” and “career mobility”) is presented which is followed by elaboration of integrative theoretical approach aiming to increase the "added value" of the concept of career for sociology and especially for social mobility studies in developing countries. This approach combines theoretical focus on dichotomy “meritocracy - traditionalism” (typical for “career mobility” studies and highly relevant to research in developing countries) with methodological orientation on studying “career fields” on organizational level. Basing on these theoretical ideas we put forward brief research agenda and formulate hypotheses for future empirical research.
The article discusses the main current approaches to the interpretation of the term professional career, as well as the established lines of empirical study of the factors of career development. The author points out to the insufficient co-ordination between the efforts of theoretical conceptualization of career-related issues and the empirical studies of this subject. The author analyzes the most promising directions for further career research in terms of Bourdieu's theory of social space. Primarily, the author focuses on elaborating the concepts of career field and career capital related to it.
Results of empirical research of career opportunities in the sector of consulting are given on the example of the companies of "Big Four", and also career expectations and social and demographic portraits of young careerists of one of the largest consulting companies are analyzed in the article.
The volume provides an overview of theoretical and practical approaches to career counselling within the systems of secondary school an adult education in Russia and in selected countries where career counselling is most developed. The first chapter explains why career counselling is a timely issue that is gaining momentum in today’s world. The second chapter provides an account of the main theories in the area of career counselling that have served as a basis for developing current career counselling practices. The third chapter provides an overview of practices and approaches to career counselling in Finland, Germany, England, Canada and Hong Kong, whose career counselling systems are widely regarded as exemplary. This chapter also offers a comparative analysis of various components and formats of contemporary career counselling systems abroad. The fourth chapter provides an analysis of key career counselling stakeholders in Russia, as well as most common practices and formats. The final chapter provides a summary of the analysis, outlines key lessons Russia can learn from international experience and discusses prospects for the development of career counselling theories and practices in Russia.
There are results of the study "The problems of labor integration of able-bodied citizens in the city of Nizhny Novgorod", carried out in September-December 2013, consisting of 35 in-depth biographical interviews with able-bodied persons, reckoning on the basis of the sum of signs of low-resource groups.
Economic crisis started in 2008 forced companies in Russia to move from growth and expansion to reduction and restructuring. The article presents the main changes at top managers’ labor market from the beginning of crisis in Russia. The original data on top managers’ mobility in Russia from late 1999 till 2009 was used. The main result of the research is that there were no big changes in Russian top managers’ labor market during the crisis years (2008–2009). The most significant change was the increase of firm’s demand for specific human capital of top managers and the decrease of demand for general human capital.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.