Влияние питания на продолжительность жизни в российских регионах
The paper studies the impact of nutrition on the life expectancy (LE) of men, as well as women in Russian regions. The empirical analysis is based on data from the Federal State Statistics Service. The panel data includes 1694 observations (77 regions of the Russian Federation in 2000–2021). The authors suggest a summary indicator of regional nutrition patterns based on the nutrition norms developed for 10 food groups by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The study was run using fixed effect models while controlling for indicators of the socio-economic development of regions.
Econometric analysis shows that LE of men and LE of women increases with the decrease in the number of deviations from the regional nutrition norms. Alcohol consumption also reduces the LE of men and women, but the effect on men's life expectancy is more pronounced. As expected, the regional GRP per capita increases life expectancy, while inequality in income distribution leads to the LE decrease. The most important factor that positively affects LE of men, as well as LE of women is the proportion of urban citizens. In addition, LE is also affected by regional healthcare design: the number of doctors per 1000 people increases the LE of women; the number of hospital beds per 10 thousand people is associated with both the LE of men and LE of women. COVID-19 significantly contributed to the decrease in LE of men and especially of women. Its negative impact was already noticeable in 2020 but became particularly pronounced in 2021.
The study draws attention to a significant regional variation in the LE of men and LE of women related, among other things, to deviations from the food consumption patterns. The findings may be of interest to regional authorities responsible for developing healthy nutrition policies in Russian regions and increasing the LE of men and women.